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Impairment of mixed melanin-based pigmentation in parrots

Parrots and allies (Order Psittaciformes) have evolved an exclusive capacity to synthesize polyene pigments called psittacofulvins at feather follicles, which allows them to produce a striking diversity of pigmentation phenotypes. Melanins are polymers constituting the most abundant pigments in animals, and the sulphurated form (pheomelanin) produces colors that are similar to those produced by psittacofulvins. However, the differential contribution of these pigments to psittaciform phenotypic diversity has not been investigated. Given the color redundancy, and physiological limitations associated to pheomelanin synthesis, this study assumed that the latter would be avoided by psittaciform birds. This hypothesis was tested by using Raman spectroscopy to identify pigments in feathers exhibiting colors suspicious of being produced by pheomelanin (i.e., dull red, yellow and grey- and green-brownish) in 26 species from the three main lineages of Psittaciformes. The non-sulphurated melanin form (eumelanin) were detected in black, grey and brown plumage patches, and psittacofulvins in red, yellow and green patches, but no evidence of pheomelanin was found. As natural melanins are assumed to be composed of eumelanin and pheomelanin in varying ratios, these results represent the first report of impairment of mixed melanin-based pigmentation in animals. Given that psittaciforms also avoid the uptake of circulating carotenoid pigments, these birds seem to have evolved a capacity to avoid functional redundancy between pigments, likely by regulating follicular gene expression. The study provides the first vibrational characterization of different psittacofulvin-based colors and thus helps to determine the relative polyene chain length in these pigments, which is related to their antireductant protection activity. informacion[at] Neves et al (2020) Impairment of mixed melanin-based pigmentation in parrots. J Experim Biol. DOI 10.1242/jeb.225912
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Sex ratio adjustments of the glossy ibis

Sex ratio adjustments of the glossy ibis

The sex ratio is an important parameter affecting population demographics. This is a study of the mechanisms and causes of changes over time in the sex ratio of the glossy ibis (Plegadis falcinellus) in the main breeding colony in Doñana. As colony size increased from seven pairs in 1996 to 4000 in 2011, a worsening of conditions seems to have increased mortality of female chicks (smaller than males), increasing the proportion of males at fledging. At the same time, the proportion of females increased at hatching, as expected under Fisher's hypothesis related to the costs and benefits that offspring of different sexes incur to the parents. The excess of males among fledglings was compensated by a greater dispersal to other populations. Changes in sex ratio are shown to be a complex process involving both adaptive and non-adaptive mechanisms. informacion[at] Santoro et al(2015) Facultative and non-facultative sex ratio adjustments in a dimorphic bird species Oikos DOI: 10.1111/oik.01889