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For a better production, agriculture areas need to recover at least 20% of natural habitat

International agreements aim to conserve 17% of Earth's land area by 2020 but include no area-based conservation targets within the working landscapes that support human needs through farming, ranching, and forestry. Through a review of country-level legislation, this study found that just 38% of countries have minimum area requirements for conserving native habitats within working landscapes. The study argues for increasing native habitats to at least 20% of working landscape area where it is below this minimum. Such target has benefits for food security, nature's contributions to people, and the connectivity and effectiveness of protected area networks in biomes in which protected areas are underrepresented. Other urgings of the review include maintaining native habitat at higher levels where it currently exceeds the 20% minimum, and a literature review shows that even more than 50% native habitat restoration is needed in particular landscapes. Including a >20% native habitats within working landscapes restoration target offers an unrivaled opportunity to simultaneously enhance biodiversity, food security and quality of life. The post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework is an opportune moment to include a minimum habitat restoration target for working landscapes that contributes to, but does not compete with, initiatives for expanding protected areas, the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration (2021–2030) and the UN Sustainable Development Goals. informacion[at] Garibaldi et al (2020) Working landscapes need at least 20% native habitat. Conserv Letter DOI: 10.1111/conl.12773
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Consequences of the defaunation of the Canarian frugivorous lizards

Consequences of the defaunation of the Canarian frugivorous lizards

Defaunation of large-bodied frugivores could be causing severe losses of crucial ecosystem functions such as seed dispersal. The immediate ecological consequences may include alteration or even collapse of seed-mediated gene flow affecting plant population connectivity, with impacts on the regional scale distribution of genetic variation. Yet these far-reaching consequences of defaunation remain understudied. This study tested whether human-induced defaunation of the Canarian frugivorous lizards altered within-island population connectivity and the amount and large-scale distribution of genetic variation of Neochamaelea pulverulenta, which relies exclusively on these lizards for seed dispersal. Individual plant genotypes from 80 populations were extensively sampled spanning the full geographic range of the plant to examine their genetic diversity, population-genetic network topologies, and the patterns of isolation both by distance (IBD) and resistance (IBR) across three ecological scenarios. Plant genetic diversity appeared unaffected by defaunation-mediated downsizing of frugivorous lizards. However, it was found reduced overall plant population connectivity together with an increased isolation by distance within the most defaunated islands when compared with the scenario preserving the functionality of lizard-mediated seed dispersal. The results, with a significant effect of lizard downsizing, were robust when controlling for biotic/abiotic differences among the three islands by means of isolation by resistance models. These results provide valuable insights into the far-reaching consequences of the deterioration of mutualisms on plant population dynamics over very large spatial scales. Conservation of large-bodied frugivores is thus essential because their irreplaceable mutualistic dispersal services maintain an extensive movement of seeds across the landscape, crucial for maintaining the genetic cohesiveness of metapopulations and the adaptive potential of plant species across their entire geographic range. informacion[at] Pérez-Méndez et al (2017) Persisting in defaunated landscapes: reduced plant population connectivity after seed dispersal collapse. J Ecol doi:10.1111/1365-2745.12848