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Honeybee colonies have increased exponentially in the Mediterranean Basin

Evidence for pollinator declines largely originates from mid-latitude regions in North America and Europe. Geographical heterogeneity in pollinator trends combined with geographical biases in pollinator studies can produce distorted extrapolations and limit understanding of pollinator responses to environmental changes. In contrast with the declines experienced in some well-investigated European and North American regions, honeybees seem to have increased recently in some areas of the Mediterranean Basin. The Mediterranean Basin is home to approximately 3300 wild bee species, or approximately 87% of those occurring in the whole western Palaearctic region. Because honeybees can have negative impacts on wild bees, it was hypothesized that a biome-wide alteration in bee pollinator assemblages may be underway in the Mediterranean Basin involving a reduction in the relative number of wild bees. This hypothesis was tested using published quantitative data on bee pollinators of wild and cultivated plants from studies conducted between 1963 and 2017 in 13 countries from the European, African and Asian shores of the Mediterranean Sea. The density of honeybee colonies increased exponentially and wild bees were gradually replaced by honeybees in flowers of wild and cultivated plants. The proportion of wild bees at flowers was four times greater than that of honeybees at the beginning of the period, the proportions of both groups becoming roughly similar 50 years later. The Mediterranean Basin is a world biodiversity hotspot for wild bees and wild bee-pollinated plants, and the ubiquitous rise of honeybees to dominance as pollinators could in the long run undermine the diversity of plants and wild bees in the region. informacion[at] Herrera (2020) Gradual replacement of wild bees by honeybees in flowers of the Mediterranean Basin over the last 50 years. Proc Royal Society B 287(1921). Doi 10.1098/rspb.2019.2657
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Detection of Iberian terrestrial mammals employing olfactory, visual and auditory attractants

Detection of Iberian terrestrial mammals employing olfactory, visual and auditory attractants

Whereas high lure specificity for mammal monitoring is often sought, little effort has been put into identifying general-purpose attractants for multispecies mammal surveys. We examined whether the olfactory lures ‘fatty acid scent' (FAS) and catnip oil differ in their ability to detect Iberian larger mammals (body mass >?800 g); whether the addition of visual and acoustic stimuli increases detection efficiency; and whether environmental variables interact with lures to influence detection. Three treatments were randomly assigned to 192 detection plots: olfactory lures only, visual lures (a combination of olfactory and visual stimuli) and auditory lures (all three types of stimuli). The design was balanced across two detection methods and three landscapes. Out of 13 target species, two were absent in the study plots and six (three common and three rare species) were detected with low frequency. The two olfactory attractants produced similar detection rates for species allowing analysis. The addition of visual and auditory stimuli did not increase detection and apparently induced repulsion for some species. Environmental variables associated with scent diffusion and lure visibility did not significantly influence mammal detection. Monitoring of mammal communities over large areas may gain efficiency by selecting lures that are simple, have a constant chemical composition, require short handling times and allow detection of all occurring species. A single olfactory attractant (FAS) could be suitable for designing large-scale monitoring programmes at least for five common mammal species, provided that passive detection methods and lure use are chosen. informacion[at]  Suárez-Tangil & Rodríguez (2017) Detection of Iberian terrestrial mammals employing olfactory, visual and auditory attractants Eur J Wildl Res 63: 93