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Impact of fisheries on sea turtles

The bycatch of sea turtles by industrial fisheries is receiving an increasing attention in recent years due to the high impact it causes on these endangered species. This issue was evaluated in southern Spain waters that harbors an important feeding ground of loggerhead and leatherback turtles, including the endangered Eastern Atlantic loggerhead population. To quantify the impact that different fisheries represents to sea turtles, 272 fishermen answered to detailed illustrated questionnaires in all the main ports of Andalusia and Murcia (Spain) during 2014. This study has updated the knowledge of turtle bycatch in the southwestern Mediterranean revealing a widespread impact of fisheries on sea turtles. Fishermen recognized an annual catch of 2.3 turtles per boat. Considering the census of industrial fishing boats in the study area (1182), more than 2840 sea turtles could be bycaught per year in the study area. Most of captures (96.2%) were produced during the summer. These results suggest a severe impact of most of legal fisheries (surface longline, pursue seine, trawling and small scale fisheries) on loggerhead feeding grounds in the southwestern Mediterranean. Fishermen suggests that drift fishing conducted by foreign or illegal fishermen and almadrabas are also causing a significant bycatch of turtles. Several measures such as reviewing compliance of current fishing and environmental regulations, modifying turtle technics to reduce turtle bycatch (e.g. reduction of the use of squid as bait and disposal of hooks deeper in the water column), facilitating the rescue and handle of wound turtles and their transport to the port for recovery, and recognizing the efforts of anglers to perform a more sustainable fishing, are recommended to mitigate this impact. informacion[at] Marco et al (2020) Sea turtle bycatch by different types of fisheries in southern Spain. Basic and Applied Herpetology
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LC-MS determination of catecholamines and related metabolites in red deer urine and hair

LC-MS determination of catecholamines and related metabolites in red deer urine and hair

A novel analytical methodology for the determination and extraction of catecholamines (dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine) and their metabolites DL-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl glycol and DL-3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid by LC-MS is here developed and validated for application to human and animal urine and hair samples. The method is based on the preliminary extraction of analytes by a magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) composite. This is followed by a < 9 min chromatographic separation of the target compounds in an Onyx Monolithic C18 column using a mixture of 0.01% (v/v) heptafluorobutyric acid in water and methanol at 500 µL min-1 flow rate. Detection limits within range from 0.055 to 0.093 µg mL-1, and precision values of the response and retention times of analytes were > 90%. Accuracy values comprised the range 79.5–109.5% when the analytes were extracted from deer urine samples using the selected MMWCNT-poly(STY-DVB) sorbent. This methodology was applied to real red deer urine and hair samples, the resulting concentrations within range from 0.05 to 0.5 µg mL-1for norepinephrine and from 1.0 to 44.5 µg mL-1 for its metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl glycol. Analyses of red deer hair resulted in high amounts of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl. informacion[at] Murtada et al (2019) LC-MS determination of catecholamines and related metabolites in red deer urine and hair extracted using magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) composite. J Chromatogr B