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Human impact has contributed to the decline of the Eurasion lynx

Disentangling the contribution of long?term evolutionary processes and recent anthropogenic impacts to current genetic patterns of wildlife species is key to assessing genetic risks and designing conservation strategies. Eighty whole nuclear genomes and 96 mitogenomes from populations of the Eurasian lynx covering a range of conservation statuses, climatic zones and subspecies across Eurasia were used to infer the demographic history, reconstruct genetic patterns, and discuss the influence of long?term isolation and more recent human?driven changes. Results show that Eurasian lynx populations shared a common history until 100,000 years ago, when Asian and European populations started to diverge and both entered a period of continuous and widespread decline, with western populations, except Kirov (Russia), maintaining lower effective sizes than eastern populations. Population declines and increased isolation in more recent times probably drove the genetic differentiation between geographically and ecologically close westernmost European populations. By contrast, and despite the wide range of habitats covered, populations are quite homogeneous genetically across the Asian range, showing a pattern of isolation by distance and providing little genetic support for the several proposed subspecies. Mitogenomic and nuclear divergences and population declines starting during the Late Pleistocene can be mostly attributed to climatic fluctuations and early human influence, but the widespread and sustained decline since the Holocene is more probably the consequence of anthropogenic impacts which intensified in recent centuries, especially in western Europe. Genetic erosion in isolated European populations and lack of evidence for long?term isolation argue for the restoration of lost population connectivity between European and Asian poulations. informacion[at] Lucena-Perez et al (2020). Genomic patterns in the widespread Eurasian lynx shaped by Late Quaternary climatic fluctuations and anthropogenic impacts. MOL ECOL 29(4) DOI 10.1111/mec.15366
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LC-MS determination of catecholamines and related metabolites in red deer urine and hair

LC-MS determination of catecholamines and related metabolites in red deer urine and hair

A novel analytical methodology for the determination and extraction of catecholamines (dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine) and their metabolites DL-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl glycol and DL-3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid by LC-MS is here developed and validated for application to human and animal urine and hair samples. The method is based on the preliminary extraction of analytes by a magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) composite. This is followed by a < 9 min chromatographic separation of the target compounds in an Onyx Monolithic C18 column using a mixture of 0.01% (v/v) heptafluorobutyric acid in water and methanol at 500 µL min-1 flow rate. Detection limits within range from 0.055 to 0.093 µg mL-1, and precision values of the response and retention times of analytes were > 90%. Accuracy values comprised the range 79.5–109.5% when the analytes were extracted from deer urine samples using the selected MMWCNT-poly(STY-DVB) sorbent. This methodology was applied to real red deer urine and hair samples, the resulting concentrations within range from 0.05 to 0.5 µg mL-1for norepinephrine and from 1.0 to 44.5 µg mL-1 for its metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl glycol. Analyses of red deer hair resulted in high amounts of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl. informacion[at] Murtada et al (2019) LC-MS determination of catecholamines and related metabolites in red deer urine and hair extracted using magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) composite. J Chromatogr B