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Influencia diferencial de la expresión de Slc7a11 y la condición corporal sobre la pigmentación producida por feomelanina en dos poblaciones de trepador azul Sitta europea con diferente riesgo de depredación

The expression of the gene Slc7a11 promotes the antioxidant capacity of cells by providing them with cysteine that can be used for the synthesis of glutathione (GSH), the most important intracellular antioxidant. In melanocytes, intracellular cysteine can also enter melanosomes and get incorporated in the pigment pheomelanin synthesis pathway, thus decreasing cysteine availability for GSH synthesis and potentially creating chronic oxidative stress. Therefore, this study hypothesized that a mechanism limiting the use of intramelanocytic cysteine for pheomelanin synthesis in environmental conditions generating oxidative stress may be physiologically advantageous and favored by natural selection. Evidence we searched of such a mechanism by comparing the influence of melanocytic Slc7a11 expression on pheomelanin?based pigmentation in developing Eurasian nuthatch Sitta europaea nestlings from two populations differing in predation risk, a natural source of oxidative stress. Pheomelanin synthesis and pigmentation tended to increase with Slc7a11 expression in the low?risk population as expected from the activity of this gene, but decreased with Slc7a11 expression in the high?risk population. The same was not observed in the expression of five other genes influencing pheomelanin synthesis without affecting cysteine availability in melanocytes. The influence of body condition on the intensity of pheomelanin?based pigmentation also differed between populations, being positive in the low?risk population and negative in the high?risk population. The resulting pigmentation of birds was more intense in the high?risk population. These findings suggest that birds perceiving high predation risk may limit the use of cysteine for pheomelanin synthesis, which becomes independent of Slc7a11 expression. Some birds may have thus evolved the ability to adjust their pigmentation phenotype to environmental stress. informacion[at]ebd.csic.es: Galván & Sanz (2020) Differential influence of Slc7a11 expression and body condition on pheomelanin-based pigmentation in two Eurasian nuthatch Sitta europaea populations with different predation risk. J Avian Biol DOI 10.1111/jav.02275


https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jav.02275
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Impact of historical vs. anthropogenic factors on processes of genetic fragmentation

Impact of historical vs. anthropogenic factors on processes of genetic fragmentation

Impact of historical vs. anthropogenic factors on processes of genetic fragmentation

Inferring the demographic history of species is fundamental for understanding their responses to past climate/landscape alterations and improving our predictions about the future impacts of the different components of ongoing global change. Estimating the time-frame at which population fragmentation took place is also critical to determine whether such process was shaped by ancient events (e.g. past climate/geological changes) or if, conversely, it was driven by recent human activities (e.g. habitat loss). Genomic data were employed to determine the factors shaping contemporary patterns of genetic variation in the Iberian cross-backed grasshopper Dociostaurus crassiusculus, an endangered species with limited dispersal capacity and narrow habitat requirements. Analyses indicate the presence of two ancient lineages and three genetic clusters resulted from historical processes of population fragmentation (~18–126?ka) that predate the Anthropocene. Landscape genetic analyses indicate that the limits of major river basins are the main geographical feature explaining large-scale patterns of genomic differentiation, with no apparent effect of human-driven habitat fragmentation. Overall, this study highlights the importance of detailed phylogeographic, demographic and spatially-explicit landscape analyses to identify evolutionary significant units and determine the relative impact of historical vs. anthropogenic factors on processes of genetic fragmentation in taxa of great conservation concern. informacion[at]ebd.csic.es: González-Serna et al (2018) Using high-throughput sequencing to investigate the factors structuring genomic variation of a Mediterranean grasshopper of great conservation concern. Scientific Reports. Doi 10.1038/s41598-018-31775-x


https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-31775-x#Abs1