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Oversea migration of white storks through the water barriers of the straits of Gibraltar

Soaring landbirds typically exploit atmospheric uplift as they fly overland, displaying a highly effective energy-saving locomotion. However, large water bodies lack thermal updrafts, potentially becoming ecological barriers that hamper migration. The effects of a sea surface on the migratory performance of GPS-tagged white storks (Ciconia ciconia) were assessed before, during and after they crossed the straits of Gibraltar. Oversea movements involved only flapping and gliding and were faster, traversed in straighter, descending trajectories and resulted in higher movement-related energy expenditure levels than overland, supporting the water barrier hypothesis. Overland movements at both sides of the sea straits resulted in tortuous routes and ascending trajectories with pre-crossing flights showing higher elevations and more tortuous routes than post-crossing, thus supporting the barrier negotiation hypothesis. Individual positions at both ends of the sea narrow were predicted by zonal winds and storks´ location at entry in the European hinterland, and birds did not show compensational movements overland in anticipation to subsequent wind displacements oversea. The length of the water narrow at departure shore, the elevation therein and the winds on route affected major components of sea crossing performance (such as distances and times overwater, minimum elevations, climb angles, speeds and energy expenditure), supporting the departure position and oversea winds hypotheses. In summary, this study provides a prime example at high temporal resolution of how birds adjust their behavior and physiology as they interact with the changing conditions of the travelling medium, reallocating resources and modifying their movement to overcome an ecological barrier. informacion[at] Blas et al (2020) Overland and oversea migration of white storks through the water barriers of the straits of Gibraltar. Scientific Reports 10: 20760. DOI 10.1038/s41598-020-77273-x. See Spanish press release
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Effect of habitat quality on flying patterns of the butterfly Plebejus argus

Effect of habitat quality on flying patterns of the butterfly Plebejus argus

Animal movement often changes with habitat quality. Butterfly movements may be influenced by structural attributes of habitat patches or may reflect the distribution of food, mates, host plants or ecological interactions. The relative influence of structural and functional factors on flight patterns is poorly understood, partly because butterfly movements are often described by simplified representations of actual trajectories. Using high-resolution GPS tracking accurate trajectories of routine movements of Plebejus argus were obtained in a heterogeneous natural landscape. Habitat quality in patches was ranked according to the abundance of host and nectar plants as well as the abundance of nests of its mutualistic ant Lasius niger. Movements were slow and winding in high quality habitats whereas faster, straighter flights were observed in poor habitats. At edges, butterflies often crossed without any exploratory behaviour towards patches of better quality, suggesting they may use cues to detect resources at some distance. Conversely, individuals usually stayed in the patch after exploring edges with other patches of lower quality. However, scanning also preceded exits towards clearly unsuitable habitat, compatible with transfers to distant high-quality patches. Authors conclude that patterns of movement in P. argus were explained by spatial heterogeneity defined by functional rather than structural criteria. It is also show that inexpensive handheld GPS receivers allow depicting detailed flying trajectories in open flat terrain revealing complex behavioural patterns. informacion[at] Fernández et al (2016) Fine scale movements of the butterfly Plebejus argus in a heterogeneous natural landscape as revealed by GPS tracking. J Insect Behav 29:80–98 DOI 10.1007/s10905-016-9543-7