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Human impact has contributed to the decline of the Eurasion lynx

Disentangling the contribution of long?term evolutionary processes and recent anthropogenic impacts to current genetic patterns of wildlife species is key to assessing genetic risks and designing conservation strategies. Eighty whole nuclear genomes and 96 mitogenomes from populations of the Eurasian lynx covering a range of conservation statuses, climatic zones and subspecies across Eurasia were used to infer the demographic history, reconstruct genetic patterns, and discuss the influence of long?term isolation and more recent human?driven changes. Results show that Eurasian lynx populations shared a common history until 100,000 years ago, when Asian and European populations started to diverge and both entered a period of continuous and widespread decline, with western populations, except Kirov (Russia), maintaining lower effective sizes than eastern populations. Population declines and increased isolation in more recent times probably drove the genetic differentiation between geographically and ecologically close westernmost European populations. By contrast, and despite the wide range of habitats covered, populations are quite homogeneous genetically across the Asian range, showing a pattern of isolation by distance and providing little genetic support for the several proposed subspecies. Mitogenomic and nuclear divergences and population declines starting during the Late Pleistocene can be mostly attributed to climatic fluctuations and early human influence, but the widespread and sustained decline since the Holocene is more probably the consequence of anthropogenic impacts which intensified in recent centuries, especially in western Europe. Genetic erosion in isolated European populations and lack of evidence for long?term isolation argue for the restoration of lost population connectivity between European and Asian poulations. informacion[at]ebd.csic.es: Lucena-Perez et al (2020). Genomic patterns in the widespread Eurasian lynx shaped by Late Quaternary climatic fluctuations and anthropogenic impacts. MOL ECOL 29(4) DOI 10.1111/mec.15366


https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/mec.15366
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Lifelong effects of trapping experience

Lifelong effects of trapping experience

Long-term monitoring of individually marked animals is usually required for reliable estimation of numerous life history parameters. However, capture, marking and manipulation can dramatically alter the animals' behaviour after capture, and thus affect subsequent recapture success. Here, a pied flycatcher population was used as an example to illustrate the sampling bias resulting from the repeated capture of free-ranging individuals. By using repeated measures of the same individuals obtained during our long-term survey, the interannual response of breeding adults to capture-related stress was specifically evaluated, measured as latency to enter nestboxes equipped with a swing-trap. Moreover, the changes in the mean and variance of bird age with varying trapping effort were examined using subsamples of the data set. Birds without any previous trapping experience entered nests more quickly than experienced ones, after controlling for other factors affecting latency, such as the sex, offspring quality and the order of capture relative to the other pair member. Birds' reluctance to enter the nest furthermore increased as the number of captures in previous years accumulated, implying that individual pied flycatchers became progressively more difficult to capture over the course of the study. These results indicate that repeated exposure to capture stress over an animal's lifetime may induce long-lasting behavioural modifications that may influence trappability of the older segments of the population. This may ultimately lead to sampling bias towards younger ages, especially when effort is limited. The study concludes that systematic age bias due to trapping experience can have important implications for the estimation of variation in a range of traits and should therefore be carefully checked in longitudinal studies. informacion[at]ebd.csic.es: Camacho et al (2017) Lifelong effects of trapping experience lead to age-biased sampling: lessons from a wild bird population.


http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003347217301938