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Honeybee colonies have increased exponentially in the Mediterranean Basin

Evidence for pollinator declines largely originates from mid-latitude regions in North America and Europe. Geographical heterogeneity in pollinator trends combined with geographical biases in pollinator studies can produce distorted extrapolations and limit understanding of pollinator responses to environmental changes. In contrast with the declines experienced in some well-investigated European and North American regions, honeybees seem to have increased recently in some areas of the Mediterranean Basin. The Mediterranean Basin is home to approximately 3300 wild bee species, or approximately 87% of those occurring in the whole western Palaearctic region. Because honeybees can have negative impacts on wild bees, it was hypothesized that a biome-wide alteration in bee pollinator assemblages may be underway in the Mediterranean Basin involving a reduction in the relative number of wild bees. This hypothesis was tested using published quantitative data on bee pollinators of wild and cultivated plants from studies conducted between 1963 and 2017 in 13 countries from the European, African and Asian shores of the Mediterranean Sea. The density of honeybee colonies increased exponentially and wild bees were gradually replaced by honeybees in flowers of wild and cultivated plants. The proportion of wild bees at flowers was four times greater than that of honeybees at the beginning of the period, the proportions of both groups becoming roughly similar 50 years later. The Mediterranean Basin is a world biodiversity hotspot for wild bees and wild bee-pollinated plants, and the ubiquitous rise of honeybees to dominance as pollinators could in the long run undermine the diversity of plants and wild bees in the region. informacion[at] Herrera (2020) Gradual replacement of wild bees by honeybees in flowers of the Mediterranean Basin over the last 50 years. Proc Royal Society B 287(1921). Doi 10.1098/rspb.2019.2657
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Effects of natural and artificial light on the nocturnal behaviour of the wall gecko

Effects of natural and artificial light on the nocturnal behaviour of the wall gecko

In the present study, the effects of nocturnal light level (i.e. lunar phase and artificial lighting) on the activity of wall geckos was evaluated (Tarentola mauritanica) of different ages in an anthropic environment. Data on individual behaviour were collected by direct observation and later examined by means of generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) analysis. The presence of moonlight increased the number of active wall geckos. Artificial lighting reduced the effect of moonlight on the number of active geckos but not on their individual activity. A greater number of adult geckos was found around artificial light as large individuals monopolized the best foraging sites. The ability to use artificially–lit human habitats, particularly on new moon nights, can benefit the foraging activity of nocturnal lizard species such as the wall gecko. informacion[at] Martín et al (2018) Effects of natural and artificial light on the nocturnal behaviour of the wall gecko. Anim Biodiv Conserv 41.2: 209-215