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Impact of fisheries on sea turtles

The bycatch of sea turtles by industrial fisheries is receiving an increasing attention in recent years due to the high impact it causes on these endangered species. This issue was evaluated in southern Spain waters that harbors an important feeding ground of loggerhead and leatherback turtles, including the endangered Eastern Atlantic loggerhead population. To quantify the impact that different fisheries represents to sea turtles, 272 fishermen answered to detailed illustrated questionnaires in all the main ports of Andalusia and Murcia (Spain) during 2014. This study has updated the knowledge of turtle bycatch in the southwestern Mediterranean revealing a widespread impact of fisheries on sea turtles. Fishermen recognized an annual catch of 2.3 turtles per boat. Considering the census of industrial fishing boats in the study area (1182), more than 2840 sea turtles could be bycaught per year in the study area. Most of captures (96.2%) were produced during the summer. These results suggest a severe impact of most of legal fisheries (surface longline, pursue seine, trawling and small scale fisheries) on loggerhead feeding grounds in the southwestern Mediterranean. Fishermen suggests that drift fishing conducted by foreign or illegal fishermen and almadrabas are also causing a significant bycatch of turtles. Several measures such as reviewing compliance of current fishing and environmental regulations, modifying turtle technics to reduce turtle bycatch (e.g. reduction of the use of squid as bait and disposal of hooks deeper in the water column), facilitating the rescue and handle of wound turtles and their transport to the port for recovery, and recognizing the efforts of anglers to perform a more sustainable fishing, are recommended to mitigate this impact. informacion[at] Marco et al (2020) Sea turtle bycatch by different types of fisheries in southern Spain. Basic and Applied Herpetology
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European Honey-buzzards use tools to attract ants for anting

European Honey-buzzards use tools to attract ants for anting

Examples of tool-use behaviours by animals outside foraging contexts are scarce and almos exclusively limited to primates. This work documents a case of tool use in the European Honey-buzzard (Pernis apivorus), a forest raptor that uses green twigs cut from maple trees (Acer monspessulanum) as a tool to attract ants. Every morning, Honey Buzzards collectec fresh maple twigs, spread them on the ground, and stretch their wings full-length. Based on postural similarities to other bird species known to grab ants and rub them into their feathers (i.e. anting behavior), it is hypothesized that through this behavior, this bird may attract ants to remove parasites. This study experimentally demonstrates that buzzards are selective in their choice of tools, as maple twigs are not only the easiest to break, but also attracted the largest number of ants compared to most plant species in the community. These results indicate that some birds can be classified as having high cognitive abilities, which allow them to perform complex behaviours. informacion[at] Camacho & Potti (2018) Non-foraging tool use in European Honey-buzzards: An experimental test. PLoS ONE 13(11): e0206843.