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The costs of mischoosing are not uniform across individuals


Matching habitat choice is a particular form of habitat selection based on self?assessment of local performance that offers individuals a means to optimize the match of phenotype to the environment. Despite the advantages of this mechanism in terms of increased local adaptation, examples from natural populations are extremely rare. One possible reason for the apparent rarity of matching habitat choice is that it might be manifest only in those segments of a population for which the cost of a phenotype–environment mismatch is high. To test this hypothesis, we used a breeding population of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) exposed to size-dependent predation risk by bears, and evaluated the costs of mischoosing in discrete groups (e.g. male versus females, and ocean?age 2 versus ocean?age 3) using reproductive life span as a measure of individual performance. Bear preference for larger fish, especially in shallow water, translates into a performance trade-off that sockeye salmon can potentially use to guide their settlement decisions. Consistent with matching habitat choice, we found that salmon of similar ocean?age and size tended to cluster together in sites of similar water depth. However, matching habitat choice was only favoured in 3?ocean females – the segment of the population most vulnerable to bear predation. This study illustrates the unequal relevance of matching habitat choice to different segments of a population, and suggests that ‘partial matching habitat choice' could have resulted in an underestimation of the actual prevalence of this mechanism in nature. informacion[at] Camacho & Hendry (2020) Matching habitat choice: it's not for everyone. Oikos DOI 10.1111/oik.06932
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European Honey-buzzards use tools to attract ants for anting

European Honey-buzzards use tools to attract ants for anting

Examples of tool-use behaviours by animals outside foraging contexts are scarce and almos exclusively limited to primates. This work documents a case of tool use in the European Honey-buzzard (Pernis apivorus), a forest raptor that uses green twigs cut from maple trees (Acer monspessulanum) as a tool to attract ants. Every morning, Honey Buzzards collectec fresh maple twigs, spread them on the ground, and stretch their wings full-length. Based on postural similarities to other bird species known to grab ants and rub them into their feathers (i.e. anting behavior), it is hypothesized that through this behavior, this bird may attract ants to remove parasites. This study experimentally demonstrates that buzzards are selective in their choice of tools, as maple twigs are not only the easiest to break, but also attracted the largest number of ants compared to most plant species in the community. These results indicate that some birds can be classified as having high cognitive abilities, which allow them to perform complex behaviours. informacion[at] Camacho & Potti (2018) Non-foraging tool use in European Honey-buzzards: An experimental test. PLoS ONE 13(11): e0206843.