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Endozoochory of similar plants by storks and gulls

Research into the dispersal of plants lacking a fleshy fruit by avian endozoochory remains limited, particularly regarding the different roles of specific vectors in the same habitat. Plants dispersed by endozoochory were compared between two migratory waterbirds differing in body size: the lesser black-backed gull, and the white stork. Faeces and pellets were collected from roosting flocks on dykes in the Doñana rice fields, and extracted intact seeds. 424 intact seeds from 21 plant taxa were recovered, 11 of which germinated under laboratory conditions. Eight plant species are considered weeds, four of them as alien species, and only two have a fleshy fruit. Toadrush (Juncus bufonius) was the dominant species, accounting for 49% of seeds recovered. Community analyses revealed no differences in the proportions of each plant species dispersed by the two birds, suggesting that waterbird plant dispersal networks are different from frugivore networks. These avian vectors provide maximum dispersal distances several orders of magnitude greater than predicted from their dispersal syndromes. Endozoochory by migratory waterbirds has major implications for plant distributions in a rapidly changing world. informacion[at] Martín-Vélez et al (2020) Endozoochory of the same community of plants lacking fleshy fruits by storks and gulls. J Veg Science DOI 10.1111/jvs.12967
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Identificación de regiones genómicas bajo selección en perros domésticos

Demographically-based evaluation of genomic regions under selection in domestic dogs


Identification of the genomic regions under selection during dog domestication is extremely challenging because the demographic fluctuations associated with domestication can produce signals in polymorphism data that mimic those imposed by selective sweeps. Here authors perform the first analysis of selection on the dog lineage that explicitly incorporates a demographic model, that by controlling for the rate of false discovery, more robustly identifies targets of selection. To do so, a selection scan was conducted using three wolf genomes representing the putative centers of dog domestication, two basal dog breeds (Basenji and Dingo), and a golden jackal as outgroup, for which a demographic model was previously inferred. It was found that our demographically informed analyses filters out many signals that would be otherwise classified as putative selection signals under an empirical outlier approach. Sixty-eight regions of the genome were identified that have likely experienced positive selection. Besides identifying a number of new neurobehavioral candidate genes, the candidate regions contain genes related to lipid metabolism, including CCRN4L, which is centered in the 3rd ranked region. This suggests a previously unreported locus of dietary adaptation, potentially due to the change in diet composition as hunting efficiency increased when proto dogs began hunting alongside hunter-gatherers. informacion[at] Freedman et al (2016) Demographically-based evaluation of genomic regions under selection in domestic dogs. PLoS Genet 12(3): e1005851. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1005851