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Oversea migration of white storks through the water barriers of the straits of Gibraltar

Soaring landbirds typically exploit atmospheric uplift as they fly overland, displaying a highly effective energy-saving locomotion. However, large water bodies lack thermal updrafts, potentially becoming ecological barriers that hamper migration. The effects of a sea surface on the migratory performance of GPS-tagged white storks (Ciconia ciconia) were assessed before, during and after they crossed the straits of Gibraltar. Oversea movements involved only flapping and gliding and were faster, traversed in straighter, descending trajectories and resulted in higher movement-related energy expenditure levels than overland, supporting the water barrier hypothesis. Overland movements at both sides of the sea straits resulted in tortuous routes and ascending trajectories with pre-crossing flights showing higher elevations and more tortuous routes than post-crossing, thus supporting the barrier negotiation hypothesis. Individual positions at both ends of the sea narrow were predicted by zonal winds and storks´ location at entry in the European hinterland, and birds did not show compensational movements overland in anticipation to subsequent wind displacements oversea. The length of the water narrow at departure shore, the elevation therein and the winds on route affected major components of sea crossing performance (such as distances and times overwater, minimum elevations, climb angles, speeds and energy expenditure), supporting the departure position and oversea winds hypotheses. In summary, this study provides a prime example at high temporal resolution of how birds adjust their behavior and physiology as they interact with the changing conditions of the travelling medium, reallocating resources and modifying their movement to overcome an ecological barrier. informacion[at]ebd.csic.es: Blas et al (2020) Overland and oversea migration of white storks through the water barriers of the straits of Gibraltar. Scientific Reports 10: 20760. DOI 10.1038/s41598-020-77273-x. See Spanish press release


www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-77273-x
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First Radiological Study of a Complete Dental Ontogeny Sequence of an Extinct Equid: Implications for Equidae Life History and Taphonomy

First Radiological Study of a Complete Dental Ontogeny Sequence of an Extinct Equid: Implications for Equidae Life History and Taphonomy

The sequence of cheek teeth mineralization, eruption, and replacement of an extinct horse species is here documented with radiological techniques for the first time thanks to the exceptional preservation of Hipparion sp. mandibles from Cerro de los Batallones (Madrid Basin, Spain). The sequence of dental ontogeny in mammals provides valuable insights about life history traits, such as the pace of growth, and about the mode of formation of fossiliferous assemblages. This study have determined that the order of permanent cheek teeth mineralization and eruption of hipparionine horses is m1, m2, (p2, p3), p4, m3. Cheek teeth mineralization timing of hipparionine horses coincides with the one observed in modern equids. In turn, there are differences in the eruption timing of the p4 and m3 between horses belonging to the Anchitheriinae and Hipparionini compared to equids of the Equus genus that might be related to the shorter durability of the deciduous tooth dp4 in anchitheriine and hipparionine horses and, more broadly, to an increased durability of equid teeth through their evolutionary history. Based on the dental eruption sequence, hipparionine horses are slow-growing, long-living mammals. The Hipparion sp. assemblage from Batallones-10 conforms to an attritional model, as individuals more vulnerable to natural mortality predominate. informacion[at]ebd.csic.es: Domingo et al (2018) First radiological study of a complete dental ontogeny sequence of an extinct equid: implications for Equidae life history and taphonomy. Sci Rep 8: 8507 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-26817-3


https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-26817-3