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Strategies shrubby junipers adopt to tolerate drought differ by site

Drought-induced dieback episodes are globally reported among forest ecosystems but they have been understudied in scrublands. Chronically-stressed individuals are supposed to be more vulnerable prior to drought which triggers death. Drought-triggered dieback and mortality events affecting Mediterranean Juniperus phoenicea scrublands were analyzed in two sites with contrasting climate and soil conditions located in Spain. The radial growth patterns of coexisting living and dead junipers, including the calculation of growth statistics used as early-warning signals, quantified growth response to climate, were characterized and the wood C and O isotope discrimination was analyzed. In the inland, continental site with rocky substrates (Yaso, Huesca, N Spain), dead junipers grew less than living junipers about three decades prior to the dieback started in 2016. However, in the coastal, mild site with sandy soils (Doñana, Huelva, SW Spain), dead junipers were smaller but grew more than living junipers about two decades before the dieback onset in 2005. The only common patterns between sites were the higher growth coherence in both living and dead junipers prior to the dieback, and the decrease in growth persistence of dead junipers. Cool and wet conditions in the prior winter and current spring, and cool summer conditions enhanced juniper growth. In Doñana, growth of living individuals was more reduced by warm July conditions than in the case of dead individuals. Higher ?13C values in Yaso indicate also more pronounced drought stress. In Yaso, dead junipers presented lower ?18O values, but the opposite occurred in Doñana suggesting different changes in stomatal conductance prior to death. Warm summer conditions enhance evapotranspiration rates and trigger dieback in this shallow-rooted species, particularly in sites with a poor water-holding capacity. Chronic, slow growth is not always a reliable predictor of drought-triggered mortality. informacion[at] Camarero et al (2020) Dieback and mortality of junipers caused by drought: Dissimilar growth and wood isotope patterns preceding shrub death. Agr Forest Meteorol 291, 108078. DOI 10.1016/j.agrformet.2020.108078
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Accommodation of developmental plasticity explains adaptive divergence among spadefoot toads

Accommodation of developmental plasticity explains adaptive divergence among spadefoot toads

Phenotypic differences among species may evolve through genetic accommodation, but mechanisms accounting for this process are poorly understood. Here hormonal variation underlying differences in the timing of metamorphosis among three spadefoot toads with different larval periods and responsiveness to pond drying is compared. Results show that, in response to pond drying, Pelobates cultripes and Spea multiplicata accelerate metamorphosis, increase standard metabolic rate (SMR), and elevate whole-body content of thyroid hormone (the primary morphogen controlling metamorphosis) and corticosterone (a stress hormone acting synergistically with thyroid hormone to accelerate metamorphosis). In contrast, Scaphiopus couchii has the shortest larval period, highest whole-body thyroid hormone and corticosterone content, and highest SMR, and these trait values are least affected by pond drying among the three species. These findings support that the atypically rapid and canalized development of S. couchii evolved by genetic accommodation of endocrine pathways controlling metamorphosis, showing how phenotypic plasticity within species may evolve into trait variation among species. informacion[at] Kulkarni et al (2017) Genetic accommodation via modified endocrine signalling explains phenotypic divergence among spadefoot toad species. Nat Commun doi:10.1038/s41467-017-00996-5