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Impairment of mixed melanin-based pigmentation in parrots

Parrots and allies (Order Psittaciformes) have evolved an exclusive capacity to synthesize polyene pigments called psittacofulvins at feather follicles, which allows them to produce a striking diversity of pigmentation phenotypes. Melanins are polymers constituting the most abundant pigments in animals, and the sulphurated form (pheomelanin) produces colors that are similar to those produced by psittacofulvins. However, the differential contribution of these pigments to psittaciform phenotypic diversity has not been investigated. Given the color redundancy, and physiological limitations associated to pheomelanin synthesis, this study assumed that the latter would be avoided by psittaciform birds. This hypothesis was tested by using Raman spectroscopy to identify pigments in feathers exhibiting colors suspicious of being produced by pheomelanin (i.e., dull red, yellow and grey- and green-brownish) in 26 species from the three main lineages of Psittaciformes. The non-sulphurated melanin form (eumelanin) were detected in black, grey and brown plumage patches, and psittacofulvins in red, yellow and green patches, but no evidence of pheomelanin was found. As natural melanins are assumed to be composed of eumelanin and pheomelanin in varying ratios, these results represent the first report of impairment of mixed melanin-based pigmentation in animals. Given that psittaciforms also avoid the uptake of circulating carotenoid pigments, these birds seem to have evolved a capacity to avoid functional redundancy between pigments, likely by regulating follicular gene expression. The study provides the first vibrational characterization of different psittacofulvin-based colors and thus helps to determine the relative polyene chain length in these pigments, which is related to their antireductant protection activity. informacion[at]ebd.csic.es: Neves et al (2020) Impairment of mixed melanin-based pigmentation in parrots. J Experim Biol. DOI 10.1242/jeb.225912


https://jeb.biologists.org/content/early/2020/05/08/jeb.225912
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Pheomelanin synthesis varies with protein food abundance in developing goshawks

Pheomelanin synthesis varies with protein food abundance in developing goshawks

The accumulation of the amino acid cysteine in lysosomes produces toxic substances, which are avoided by a gene (CTNS) coding for a transporter that pumps cystine out of lysosomes. Melanosomes are lysosome-related organelles that synthesize melanins, the most widespread pigments in animals. The synthesis of the orange melanin, termed pheomelanin, depends on cysteine levels because the sulfhydryl group is used to form the pigment. Pheomelanin synthesis may, therefore, be affected by cysteine homeostasis, although this has never been explored in a natural system. As diet is an important source of cysteine, here such an effect was indirectly tested by searching for an association between food abundance and pheomelanin content of feathers in a wild population of Northern goshawk Accipiter gentilis. As predicted on the basis that CTNS expression may inhibit pheomelanin synthesis and increase with food abundance -as previously found in other strictly carnivorous birds- the feather pheomelanin content in nestling goshawks, but not in adults, decreased as the abundance of prey available to them increased. In contrast, variation in the feather content of the non-sulphurated melanin form (eumelanin) was only explained by sex in both nestlings and adults. The feather pheomelanin content of nestlings was also found negatively related to that of their mothers, suggesting a relevant environmental influence on pheomelanin synthesis. Overall, these findings suggest that variation in pheomelanin synthesis may be a side effect of the maintenance of cysteine homeostasis. This may help explaining variability in the expression of pigmented phenotypes. informacion[at]ebd.csic.es: Galván et al (2019) Pheomelanin synthesis varies with protein food abundance in developing goshawks. J Comp Physiol B https://doi.org/10.1007/s00360-019-01222-y


https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00360-019-01222-y