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Optimization of protocols for DNA extraction from fecal samples

High-throughput sequencing offers new possibilities in molecular ecology and conservation studies. However, its potential has not yet become fully exploited for noninvasive studies of free–ranging animals, such as those based on feces. High–throughput sequencing allows sequencing of short DNA fragments and could allow simultaneous genotyping of a very large number of samples and markers at a low cost. The application of high throughput genotyping to fecal samples from wildlife has been hindered by several labor intensive steps. Alternative protocols which could allow higher throughput were evaluated for two of these steps: sample collection and DNA extraction. Two different field sampling and seven different DNA extraction methods were tested on grey wolf (Canis lupus) feces. There was high variation in genotyping success rates. The field sampling method based on surface swabbing performed much worse than the extraction from a fecal fragment. In addition, there is a lot of room for improvement in the DNA extraction step. Optimization of protocols can lead to very much more efficient, cheaper and higher throughput noninvasive monitoring. Selection of appropriate markers is still of paramount importance to increase genotyping success. informacion[at]ebd.csic.es: Sarabia et al (2020) Towards high-throughput analyses of fecal samples from wildlife. Animal Biodiver Conserv 43.2: 271–283 Doi 10.32800/abc.2020.43.0271


http://abc.museucienciesjournals.cat/volum-43-2-2020/towards-high-throughput-analyses-of-fecal-samples-from-wildlife/?lang=en
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Different effects of accelerated development and enhanced growth on oxidative stress and telomere shortening in amphibian larvae

Different effects of accelerated development and enhanced growth on oxidative stress and telomere shortening in amphibian larvae

Organisms react to environmental changes through plastic responses that often involve physiological alterations with the potential to modify life-history traits and fitness. Environmentally induced shifts in growth and development in species with complex life cycles determine the timing of transitions between subsequent life stages, as well as body condition at transformation, which greatly determine survival at later stages. This study shows that spadefoot toad larvae surviving pond drying and predators experienced marked alterations in growth and development, and in their fat reserves, oxidative stress, and relative telomere length. Tadpoles accelerated development but reduced growth and consumed more fat reserves when facing pond drying. However, oxidative stress was buffered by increased antioxidant enzyme activity, and telomeres remained unchanged. Predators caused opposite effects: they reduced larval density, hence relaxing competition and allowing faster development and enhanced growth of survivors. Tadpoles surviving predators metamorphosed bigger and had larger fat bodies, increasing their short-term survival odds, but showed signs of oxidative stress and had shorter telomeres. Developmental acceleration and enhanced growth thus seemed to have different physiological consequences: reduced fat bodies and body size compromise short-term survival, but are reversible in the long run, whereas telomere shortening is non-reversible and could reduce long-term survival. informacion[at]ebd.csic.es: Burraco et al (2017) Different effects of accelerated development and enhanced growth on oxidative stress and telomere shortening in amphibian larvae. Sci Rep doi:10.1038/s41598-017-07201-z


https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-07201-z