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Optimization of protocols for DNA extraction from fecal samples

High-throughput sequencing offers new possibilities in molecular ecology and conservation studies. However, its potential has not yet become fully exploited for noninvasive studies of free–ranging animals, such as those based on feces. High–throughput sequencing allows sequencing of short DNA fragments and could allow simultaneous genotyping of a very large number of samples and markers at a low cost. The application of high throughput genotyping to fecal samples from wildlife has been hindered by several labor intensive steps. Alternative protocols which could allow higher throughput were evaluated for two of these steps: sample collection and DNA extraction. Two different field sampling and seven different DNA extraction methods were tested on grey wolf (Canis lupus) feces. There was high variation in genotyping success rates. The field sampling method based on surface swabbing performed much worse than the extraction from a fecal fragment. In addition, there is a lot of room for improvement in the DNA extraction step. Optimization of protocols can lead to very much more efficient, cheaper and higher throughput noninvasive monitoring. Selection of appropriate markers is still of paramount importance to increase genotyping success. informacion[at]ebd.csic.es: Sarabia et al (2020) Towards high-throughput analyses of fecal samples from wildlife. Animal Biodiver Conserv 43.2: 271–283 Doi 10.32800/abc.2020.43.0271


http://abc.museucienciesjournals.cat/volum-43-2-2020/towards-high-throughput-analyses-of-fecal-samples-from-wildlife/?lang=en
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Firebreaks constrain butterfly movements

Firebreaks constrain butterfly movements

Firebreaks are linear strips that dissect the landscape and prevent or mitigate the spread of wildfires in Mediterranean landscapes. However, few studies have addressed their potential effect on insect behavior. The lack of traffic and other human activities in firebreaks makes them suitable for testing the sole effect of physical habitat disruption on animal movement. Main objective was to evaluate whether the pattern of movement by a butterfly species was affected by this landscape element. Flight trajectories of the lycaenid butterfly Plebejus argus were reconstructed within and around one firebreak using visual and GPS tracking in Doñana National Park (southern Spain). Butterflies that were active at the firebreak boundary often refused to enter the firebreak and, when they did, most individuals returned before reaching the opposite side. Inside the firebreak faster and straighter trajectories were recorded than in adjacent scrubland areas. Butterflies that crossed the firebreak headed the most favorable direction to minimize the time spent within the habitat discontinuity. At the landscape scale, firebreak density increased in areas where P. argus habitat was more fragmented and had lower quality. In other studies, when firebreaks are mowed instead of ploughed, they appeared to be beneficial for butterflies. In contrast, in Doñana, barren firebreaks do not provide any valuable resource for P. argus and its environmental conditions probably entail considerable physiological stress. In sum, a narrow, open linear element lacking any human activity induces a marked change in the movement behavior of a butterfly species, with potential consequences on population dynamics at the landscape scale. Therefore, firebreaks used for protecting Mediterranean landscapes could have side effects on animal populations other than localized habitat loss due to mere vegetation removal. informacion[at]ebd.csic.es: Fernández et al (2019) Firebreaks as a barrier to movement: the case of a butterfly in a Mediterranean landscape. J Insect Conserv DOI 10.1007/s10841-019-00175-5


https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10841-019-00175-5#Abs1