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A timeline for the urbanization of wild birds: The case of the lesser kestrel

The Lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) evolved as a separate species in the Old-World kestrel radiation starting in the late Miocene. Given that the first cities were erected in the Holocene, this urban colonial raptor has only become a major town dweller recently in its evolutionary history. Today, more than 95% of lesser kestrel colonies in Spain and other Mediterranean countries are on buildings, and the remaining few are on rocky outcrops, that may have been the original nesting substrate for this cavity-nesting bird. Lesser kestrel fossils are well represented in cave sites, and their paleontological distribution, spanning from the Early Paleolithic to the Epipaleolithic, agrees well with its current breeding distribution. According to classical sources, such as the works of Columella and Pliny the Elder, and the presence of a skeletal remain in a Roman villa near Madrid, lesser kestrels may have nested in buildings and in urban settings for at least 2000e2500 years. However, there are no surviving colonies in structures older than 1400 years in Andalusia, nor in Spain. For a sample of 349 colonies on ancient buildings, a majority of the structures had been erected between the 15th and 17th centuries, this putting a time limit of about 300-600 years to the existence of those seemingly immemorial colonies. For specific towns and buildings, written references for the presence of lesser kestrel colonies do not go back more than two centuries. In fact, the Cathedral of Sevilla may be the structure with the longest continuous occupation by lesser kestrels recorded up to present time, from 1834 to 2020. Lesser kestrels were possibly too common in human settlements in the past as to be noted as special. This may explain the scarcity of references to the species until the 19th century. In any case, the same lack of information affects the other major Eurasian urban birds, as no timeline exist for the urbanization process of any other bird species. Here authors propose that lesser kestrels became urban breeders when both adequate cavities in buildings and cereal fields, where they capture their invertebrate prey, became available in their breeding range, several millennia ago. However, urban colonies, in contrast with the ones on stable geological substrates, have been forced to move from building to building when older ones became ruinous or were rebuilt, but new structures with suitable cavities became available throughout History. informacion[at] Negro et al (2020) A timeline for the urbanization of wild birds: The case of the lesser kestrel. Quaternary Sci Rev
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High livestock numbers have a negative influence on Canarian Egyptian vultures’ body condition

High livestock numbers have a negative influence on Canarian Egyptian vultures' body condition

Individual traits such as body mass can serve as early warning signals of changes in the fitness prospects of animal populations facing environmental impacts. Here, taking advantage of a 19?year monitoring, the question how individual, population and environmental factors modulate long?term changes in the body mass of Canarian Egyptian vultures was addressed. Individual vulture body mass increased when primary productivity was highly variable, but decreased in years with a high abundance of livestock. The hypothesis tested was that carcasses of wild animals, a natural food resource that can be essential for avian scavengers, could be more abundant in periods of weather instability (i.e. variation in primary productivity) but depleted when high livestock numbers lead to over?grazing. Results would also indicate that wild prey represents essential, but highly underestimated, resources, whose availability would affect vulture condition and fitness. In addition, increasing vulture population numbers also negatively affect body mass suggesting density?dependent competition for food. Interestingly, the relative strength of individual, population and resource availability factors on body mass changed with age and territorial status, a pattern presumably shaped by differences in competitive abilities and/or age?dependent environmental knowledge and foraging skills. This study supports that individual plastic traits may be extremely reliable tools to better understand the response of secondary consumers to current and future natural and human?induced environmental changes. Disentangling the complex relationships among ecosystem-level factors, population structure, and individual characteristics that determine animal body condition will help define management strategies for this and other ecologically similar endangered populations. informacion[at] Donázar et al (2020) Too much is bad: increasing numbers of livestock and conspecifics reduce body mass in an avian scavenger. Ecol Appl DOI 10.1002/eap.2125