Documentación archivada Documentación archivada



Grabaciones en vídeo de los seminarios de la EBD
— 20 Resultados por página
Mostrando el intervalo 1 - 20 de 126 resultados.
Nombre Tamaño Descargas
01_03_2018, Matthew Webster
The genomic basis of local adaptation in honeybees Uncovering the genetic basis of adaptive traits and the processes that drive adaptation are important goals in biology. Here I will describe recent studies of the genomics of local adaptation in bees. The results highlight the importance of chromosomal inversions in adaptation and demonstrate how admixture can facilitate adaptation. I will also present studies of the genomic basis of adaptive response to recent environmental change.
779,7MB 433
03_12_2015, Ingrid Parker, Phylogenetic structure and host abundance drive disease pressure in communities
Prof. Ingrid M. Parker Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology University of California, Santa Cruz Title: Phylogenetic structure and host abundance drive disease pressure in communities Abstract: Pathogens play an important part in shaping the structure and dynamics of natural communities. A shared goal of ecology and epidemiology is to predict when a species is most vulnerable to disease. A leading hypothesis asserts that the impact of disease should increase with host abundance, producing a ‘rare-species advantage’. However, the impact of a pathogen may be decoupled from host abundance, because most pathogens infect more than one species, leading to pathogen spillover onto closely related species. We study how the phylogenetic and ecological structure of the surrounding community can be important predictors of disease pressure in a grassland plant community. We formulate predictive models of pathogen sharing using a global database, then use these models to predict disease pressure at the local scale. We find that we can both explain variation in disease across a community of hosts and predict disease pressure for experimentally introduced novel hosts. Our work has implications for the maintenance of biodiversity, epidemiology, biotic resistance against introduced weeds, and the success of managed plants in agriculture and forestry.
281,6MB 1157
03_12_2019, Antton Alberdi
"Hologenomics: a novel systemic approach for vertebrate evolution, ecology and conservation research"
644,5MB 56
04_02_2016, Isabel Pacios, Efecto de parasitosis y virosis en la condición fisiológica y la dinámica poblacional del conejo de monte (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
María Isabel Pacios Departmento de Etología y Conservación de la Biodiversidad Estación Biológica de Doñana Título: Efecto de parasitosis y virosis en la condición fisiológica y la dinámica poblacional del conejo de monte (Oryctolagus cuniculus) Resumen: Las enfermedades infecciosas constituyen una de las principales amenazas para la conservación de especies silvestres, no obstante el desconocimiento en este campo aún sigue siendo grande en muchos sentidos. El objeto primero de la presente tesis es estudiar los parámetros eco-epidemiológicos en una población silvestre, usando para ello como modelo el conejo de monte (Oryctolagus cuniculus) y sus dos principales virosis: mixomatosis (MV) y enfermedad hemorrágica del conejo (EHCV). Este modelo nos permite estudiar la emergencia y el desarrollo de las enfermedades sobre poblaciones reales en estado de semi-libertad, identificar posibles interacciones de estos agentes patógenos con factores bióticos y/o abióticos y conocer su efecto último sobre la dinámica poblacional.
181,9MB 1125
05_03_2015 Jesús Martínez Padilla, Temporal and geographical patterns of natural and sexual selection in wild birds
Natural selection is the main mechanism to explain the diversity of living organisms. However, natural selection is limited in absence of environmental variation. Yet, our knowledge on how evolution works under different environmental circumstances is extremely limited in wild populations, because most of our understanding of how natural selection operates has been focused in studies based on single years and populations. In this talk, I will show how different sources of environmental variation like food abundance, parasites or climatic conditions influence the variance of the expression of sexual traits in long-term (Common kestrels – Falco tinnunculus) or multiple studied populations (Red grouse – Lagopus lagopus scoticus). Also, I am particularly interested on showing some preliminary analyses looking at first, the influence of environmental heterogeneity on both additive genetic variance and selection (i.e. microevolution) in common kestrels. Second, exploring the evolutionary potential of multiple populations and species to respond to environmental change by analysing evolutionary biology using bio-geographical tools.
287,7MB 504
05_11_2015, Germán Orizaola, Amphibians and breeding phenology, a life history perspective
Amphibians and breeding phenology: a life history perspective Germán Orizaola Animal Ecology, Dept. Ecology and Genetics, Uppsala University, Sweden. Time is often a critical ecological constraint determining whether animals survive and successfully reproduce. Organisms have evolved to synchronise the timing of key seasonal events (i.e. reproduction, migration, hibernation) with the environmental conditions that maximize their fitness. Seasonal environments are characterised by short time-windows with optimal conditions to breed and grow. However, the timing and length of these conditions are variable among seasons, and many organisms have recently experienced abrupt changes in their phenology ascribed to climate change. The capacity of organisms to track alterations in seasonality and adjust their life-history strategies to the changing environment is thus crucial for adapting to the current scenario of high climatic variability. In my research, I focus on the processes and mechanisms that allow organisms to cope with phenological variation, using amphibians as study models. In this seminar, I will talk about the plasticity of life-history strategies in larval amphibians in response to changes in breeding phenology, the interaction between life-history responses to breeding phenology and predation risk, as well as on the costs and potential activation mechanisms of alternative life-history strategies in amphibians.
192,4MB 559
06_06_2019, Gregorio Sanchéz
ntegrative demography: unraveling population dynamics with capture-mark-recapture and molecular data Gregorio Sánchez Montes Departamento de Biodiversidad y Biología Evolutiva, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales. Information about population size, average breeding sucess and regional connectivity is relevant for assessing population status, understanding evolutionary processes operating at local scales, and unraveling how life-history traits affect these processes. We address the study of relevant demographic parameters such as census and effective population sizes, polygamy rates and gene flow by combining genetic analyses and individual-based capture-mark-recapture data. In this talk I will show some estimates obtained during our 10-year monitoring program in an amphibian community in central Spain to prove that integrative demography represents a good opportunity for obtaining robust demographic inferences with wide applications for evolutionary and conservation research.
523,5MB 437
06_10_2016, Elena Gómez-Díaz,
Epigenetic cross-talk between the human malaria parasite and its mosquito vector Abstract: Host-parasite interactions are amongst the most plastic systems in nature. Epigenetic processes regulate transcription and provide means for rapid responses to the environment that can be heritable. To test the idea that epigenetic mechanisms regulate host-parasite adaptive phenotypic responses in the course of an infection, in this project I used a natural system involving the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and its natural mosquito vector Anopheles gambiae. My investigations combine genome-wide analysis of trancription by RNA-seq, the analysis of histone modifications by ChIP-seq, as well as the study of chromatin structure by ATAC-seq, at different time stages during parasite life-cycle in the mosquito. In this talk I will focus first on the results on the parasite, which show that in the course of a malaria infection P.falciparum undergoes a number of alterations in patterns of gene expression, which depend in turn on reciprocal modifications to the structure and organization of the chromatin. Importantly, these changes impact genes linked to malaria pathogenesis. I will then move to present results on the mosquito vector. In this case, the comparison of histone modification and gene expression profiles between infected and uninfected mosquitoes allowed us to identify malaria responsive epigenes as those mosquito genes showing correlated changes in mRNA and histone mark levels in response to infection. In addition, the analysis of small non-coding RNAs identified a set of mosquito miRNAs whose abundance is altered in response to infection and potentially target multiple immune genes. These findings are not only relevant at the fundamental level for the fields of Plasmodium and mosquito biology, but have important practical implications for the design of new strategies to fight malaria.
507,6MB 2094
07_02_2019, Nicola Bernardo
"Assessing the conservation status of global terrestrial mammals through the application of a multidimensional index of species’ vulnerability to extinction" Biodiversity is currently facing the most severe crisis of the last 65 million years. During the last centuries, the exponential growth of human population and the consequent increase in resource consumption have triggered a rapid loss of biological diversity, in which the extirpation of populations and the decline in local abundance are rapidly driving species towards the brink of extinction. Understanding the conservation status of species is fundamental for an effective scheduling of future conservation actions and an efficient allocation of conservation resources. The main objective of my PhD project is the development of a new tool to quantify species’ vulnerability to extinction, a composite index assessing three different dimensions of risk: species’ intrinsic traits linked to vulnerability, the intensity of anthropogenic threats, and the amount of available information on the taxa analysed. The predictive ability of the multidimensional index of vulnerability will be tested against the IUCN classification system. Subsequently, the index will be applied to elaborate global maps of current and future vulnerability for terrestrial mammals, to assess the conservation status of some of the species missing sufficient data for the application of the IUCN criteria, and to identify any possible unrecognized conservation concerns among the studied species.
281,6MB 294
08_02_2018, Carlos M.Herrera
Ecología de la variación subindividual en plantas. "Una conferencia sobre ciertas obviedades vegetales de consecuencias nada obvias". Lectura impartida en EAB2017 Joint Meeting BES Gfö Diciembre 2017 con ocasión del Ernst Haeckel Prize concedido al profesor Carlos M. Herrera, Estación Biológica de Doñana, CSIC.
730,7MB 245
09_01_2020, Julio Rabadan
Título: Citizen science for researchers: An exceptional tool for data acquisition. Resumen: Involvement of amateurs and volunteers in the development of scientific activity has been common throughout history. However, nowadays, with the help of new technologies, citizen science offers a new set of possibilities for research teams, which can address questions and problems of much greater magnitude thanks to a massive growth in the amount of available data. After a brief historical tour, we will review the existing tools and applications to collect field data, process and integrate it into collaborative projects. Specifically, we will focus on, an international citizen science platform on biodiversity that collaborates with many scientific institutions along Europe. This platform allows users to record, both from your mobile and from the web, observations of any living being anywhere in the world with all kind of details. It allows to associate images and sounds to the observations, opening the possibility to explore the surroundings with the automatic recognition of species from images. Numerous scientific teams and working groups use in their projects both as a tool for data collection as a repository of data, since its design meets the needs of the advanced amateur and the professional fieldworker. All the knowledge collected by the hundreds of thousands of collaborators is used to improve the conservation and knowledge of the environment, generating with the accumulated information around 100 scientific publications per year.
564MB 144
09_02_2017, Alvaro Bayon
Ponente: Vary Bayón Title: Regional analysis of temporal trends and horizon scanning of commercial alien species Abstract: Biological invasions by alien species represent one of the major current threats to diversity. The commercial uses of alien species for recreational or ornamental uses are main pathways for deliberate introduction. The main objective of my thesis is to obtain a scientific analysis of the historical trends for the use of alien species with commercial value in Spain and the prediction of potential related future threats that allows us to carry out preventive actions. The first chapter is at a quite advanced stage. We conducted an ‘horizon scanning’ analysis of outdoor gardening plants commercially available in Spain. For this purpose we compiled a database which includes the vast majority of plant species sold in the market (919) and we classified them according to (1) its invasive status in Spain, including if regulated, (2) its invasive status elsewhere, (3) its climatic suitability for Spain, and (4) its potential ecological and socio-economic impacts. This database will be transferred to the national environmental authorities as the bases for Horizon scanning on potential invasive species in Spain which introduction could be avoided. Another chapter will be on the analyses of historical, functional and phylogenetic trends of planted woody plants in urban parks. Finally, I also plan to conduct an historical analyses of fashions of pets, hunting and sport fishing species based on specialized popular journals.
231,7MB 920
09_04_2015, Proyecto Horus, Calum Morrison and Holly Pink, Nest 6N4 (2012) and Nest 6S2 (2012) 139,8MB 176
09_06_2016, Cristina Botias, Quantifying exposure of bees to pesticides
In recent years, an intense debate has been generated about the environmental risks posed by neonicotinoids, a group of widely-used, neurotoxic insecticides. When these systemic compounds are applied to seeds low concentrations are subsequently found in the nectar and pollen of the crop and so they can be consumed by bees. A key point of controversy is whether bees consume enough of these compounds during the flowering period of the crop to do them significant harm. Thus, there is a need to understand the routes of exposure for bees and the levels present in the pollen and nectar of the flowers they visit. In this seminar I will show the concentrations of neonicotinoid insecticides that bees are exposed to when they forage in agricultural landscapes, and I will comment on the work in progress where I am assessing the effect of field-realistic levels of pesticides on bumblebee colonies.
572,1MB 1070
10_02_2016, Julio Araujo, Caracterización de las comunidades acuáticas en la cuenca andino amazónica de Madre de Dios - Perú
Julio Araujo Biología Ambiental y Salud Pública Universidad de Huelva Título: Caracterización de las comunidades acuáticas en la cuenca andino amazónica de Madre de Dios - Perú Resumen: El proyecto de tesis se enfoca en el estudio de comunidades acuáticas -con énfasis en la ictiofauna- en una región del piedemonte y la llanura de la cuenca amazónica, el río Madre de Dios al sureste de la Amazonía Peruana. El gradiente altitudinal que abarca el área de estudio y la falta de información previa suponen la principal justificación del estudio.
236,9MB 1508
10_05_2017, Salit Kark
Title What shapes spatial invasion patterns of alien birds in Australia vs. Europe? Summary I will talk about the factors shaping invasive species richness and distribution in Europe and Australia at large scales and will also present several case studies from our work on interactions between invasive and native birds from around the world, with focus on parrots, starlings, mynas and more.
625,5MB 344
10_10_2019, Ignasi Bartomeus
"What’s wrong with the bees? How to predict the effects of global change on pollinators" There is increasing concern about the decline of pollinators worldwide. However, despite reports that pollinator declines are widespread, data are scarce and often geographically and taxonomically biased. These biases limit robust inference about any potential pollinator crisis. Non-structured and opportunistic historical specimen collection data provide the only source of historical information which can serve as a baseline for identifying pollinator declines. Here, I will first show how researchers can use historical data to identify long-term changes in biodiversity, species abundances, and responses to climate warming. A second key challenge is bridging the gap between ecological theory and empirical studies to understand the mechanisms regulating pollinator community dynamics. Species do not live in isolation but are embedded within a network of species interactions. Although responses to global change are typically studied at the species level, the emergent properties of complex communities of interacting organisms may buffer species from extinction. Using a well-replicated dataset of pollinator communities across a land use change gradient, I will show how we can characterize pollinator-pathogen interaction networks. In order to understand how pollinator populations are regulated, we need to link the network of mutualistic and antagonistic interactions to the stability of pollinator populations over time.
561,3MB 202
10_11_2016, Stijn van Gils
Title: Optimizing ecosystem services and its limitations Abstract: Ecosystem services, such as pollination and pest control, largely underpin the production in arable agriculture. Treatments to enhance one ecosystem service, however, may influence the effect of other ecosystem services and knowledge about these interaction effects can be used to optimize ecosystem services to enhance agricultural production. Over the last few years various experiments have been performed to test how ecosystem services can be optimized. In my presentation I will present some of my own work on the optimization of ecosystem services, as well as the limitations to this kind of studies. Stijn van Gils (Netherlands Institute of Ecology,NIOO-KNAW)
431MB 993
10_12_2015, Christoph Liedtke, The Evolution of Terrestrial Breeding in African Amphibians
Christoph Liedtke Dept. Ecología de Humedales Estación Biológica de Doñana (CSIC) Title: The Evolution of Terrestrial Breeding in African Amphibians Abstract: The transition from aquatic to terrestrial reproduction in early tetrapods is viewed as a major adaptive change in the history of life. Extant amphibians are an interesting group for testing how such a shift may have occured, given the multiple, independent evolutionary changes towards terrestrial breeding in this group. Many amphibian species show partly or fully terrestrial modes of reproduction and their spatial distribution correlate with specific life history traits as well as climatic and environmental factors. Phylogenetic comparative methods provide a powerful tool for investigating such evolutionary correlations and in this seminar, I will use two examples from Africa: the fauna of the speices-rich Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania and the diverse African colonizers, the true toads, to test hypotheses on the evolution of terrestrial life history strategies, their effect on evolutionary rate dynamics and on evolutionary lineage diversification
342,8MB 323
11_01_2018, Erika Lopez
Directos al nucleus accumbens! Cómo crear adictos a la ciencia. Responsable de Comunicación del CSIC Andalucía La divulgación no es una opción, es una necesidad. Pero no puede realizarse de cualquier forma: requiere conectar con el público, seducirle, atraerle y ganarle para la causa. Por ello, quienes tenemos la obligación de hacer la ciencia extensible a la sociedad debemos usar herramientas a la hora de comunicar que apelen a su emoción. Os lanzo dos preguntas para que reflexionemos: ¿Hay algo que no pueda ser comprendido? ¿Hay algo que no pueda ser explicado? Si la respuesta es NO, estás listo para comunicar ciencia. En este pequeño encuentro abordaremos los principales problemas a la hora de comunicar ciencia, cómo solventarlos, cuáles son las herramientas más adecuadas y, finalmente, veremos algunos casos prácticos de éxito y fracaso.
680,7MB 319
— 20 Resultados por página
Mostrando el intervalo 1 - 20 de 126 resultados.