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Seminarios

Grabaciones en vídeo de los seminarios de la EBD
Documentos
— 20 Resultados por página
Mostrando el intervalo 21 - 40 de 85 resultados.
Nombre Tamaño Descargas
13_01_2017, Santiago Castroviejo
Ciclos en el estudio de la biodiversidad: El samsara del herpetólogo Santiago Castroviejo-Fisher Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, Brasil Estudiar la diversidad de la vida es un desafío intelectual de primer orden, cuyos resultados tienen importantes implicaciones para la humanidad. Sin embargo, a día de hoy, incluso las unidades comparativas básicas en el estudio de la biodiversidad están poco o nada estudiadas. En este seminario, se expondrán los esfuerzos de un grupo de biólogos en el estudio de la biodiversidad animal. Usando radiaciones evolutivas de anfibios, como por ejemplo las ranas de cristal, en la región mas biodiversa del planeta—la cuenca amazónica—el Dr. Castroviejo-Fisher explicará desde como se organizan expediciones científicas a algunas de las regiones mas remotas del planeta para la colecta de datos, hasta como se testan explicaciones causales sobre el origen y distribución de la diversidad observada.
742,9MB 271
13_06_2014, Ian Newton
Findings from a long-term study of sparrowhawks
495,4MB 155
13_07_2017, Carine Emer
Seed-Dispersal interactions in a fragmented biodiversity hotspot: a metanetwork approach. Bird seed-dispersal (BSD) interactions can function as mobile links to connect fragmented forests by scaling-up from within-fragment networks to a spatial metanetwork linked by shared interactions. We explored the structure of a metanetwork of BSD-interactions from 16 fragments of a biodiversity hotspot, the Atlantic Forest, to test whether a distinct subset of BSD-interactions may mediate connectivity among forest fragments. We found high beta-diversity and turnover of interactions among fragments, forming an interaction-rich, modular and poorly connected metanetwork. Larger, less-disturbed tracts harboured distinct interactions vanishing in smaller-area fragments (10,000 ha) which, in turn, harboured new combinations of interacting species, generating geographic variation across large spatial scales. Potential mobile links constituted a distinct subset of interactions, involving generalist small-bodied bird species and small-seeded, fast-growing plant species. We unveiled specific BSD-interactions as the metanetwork components potentially connecting forest fragments and persisting facing defaunation and fragmentation, possibly leading to long-term changes of forest structure.
614,7MB 144
14_02_2017, Karen McCoy
Patterns and processes underlying host-parasite population structures
1GB 159
15_01_2015 Íñigo Martinez, An integrative approach to phylogeograhy, investigating the evolutionary history of two co-distributed amphibians at different geographic and temporal scales
"An integrative approach to phylogeograhy: investigating the evolutionary history of two co-distributed amphibians at different geographic and temporal scales”
276,9MB 390
15_06_2015, David Tilman, From Evolutionary Origins to Ecosystem Functioning 519,3MB 108
15_06_2016, Montse Vila y Ana Montero, Efectos de la floracion masiva en los polinizadores
nueva Sesión Informativa sobre los resultados de investigación realizada en Doñana. La sesión se titula "Efectos de la Floración masiva de Naranjos y Fresales en los Polinizadores", y será presentada por Montserrat Vilà y Ana Montero-Castaña (EBD-CSIC). El seminario lo organiza el Espacio Natural de Doñana
649,1MB 42
15_12_2016, Mar Comas
PONENTE: Mar Comas ?TITLE: Ecology of a small mammal community along an altitudinal gradient Altitudinal gradients imply a variation in several environmental variables (as temperature and moisture) generating a spatial variation in the selective pressures and allowing for the study of different ecological and evolutionary processes. In this PhD thesis, I will study the ecology and evolution of treeshrews (Tupaia montana) along an altitudinal gradient in Kinabalu park (Sabah, Malaysia), from different approaches. I will study the trophic ecology of the tree shrews (genus Tupaia) by means stable isotopes, their parasites and their immune system (Class I and II genes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex). We will also study the relationship between parasites and immune system.?
250,2MB 294
16_02_2017, Carlos Camacho
Diferenciación de poblaciones a pequeña escala: mecanismos ecológicos y evolutivos implicados Resumen: El intercambio de genes entre poblaciones través de la dispersión se ha considerado tradicionalmente como la principal fuerza que se opone a la diferenciación evolutiva. Sin embargo, estudios recientes muestran que los movimientos de dispersión pueden reforzar la diferenciación de poblaciones cuando el intercambio de individuos se producen de forma no aleatoria en relación a su genotipo o fenotipo particular. Las causas de la dispersión no aleatoria permanecen sin explorar en la mayoría de sistemas naturales y, por tanto, todavía desconocemos en gran medida sus consecuencias ecológicas y evolutivas. Esta tesis doctoral tiene como objetivos (1) caracterizar la diferenciación de poblaciones a pequeña escala espacial (2) estudiar el papel de la dispersión no aleatoria y (3) entender sus consecuencias ecológicas y evolutivas. El sistema de estudio está formado por dos hábitats geográficamente próximos (1 km) aunque ecológicamente distintos (reciente plantación de pinos y antiguo bosque de roble melojo) utilizados para nidificar por una población de papamoscas cerrojillo (Ficedula hypoleuca). Para abordar los objetivos de la tesis, contamos con una amplia base de datos sobre la reproducción, supervivencia y movimientos de los papamoscas obtenida tras más tres décadas de seguimiento (1984-2016) que servirá como complemento a los experimentos (intercambios de pollos) y recogida de datos (dieta y disponibilidad de alimento) que se han llevado a cabo en los últimos años. En este seminario, se expondrán los resultados obtenidos hasta la fecha en relación al efecto del fenotipo, la experiencia y la genética de los individuos sobre los patrones de dispersión y su papel en los procesos microevolutivos.?
333MB 156
16_02_2017, Laura Rios Pena
Título : Uso de datos heterogéneos para la delimitación de áreas de distribución de especies Resumen: El área de distribución de una especie es una construcción conceptual que delimita el área donde está presente en un momento dado. El concepto de área de distribución es central en las disciplinas de biogeografía, macroecología y biología de la conservación, utilizándose a menudo para describir patrones de biodiversidad, informar en la gestión y conservación de recursos naturales, identificar áreas prioritarias para la conservación o investigar relaciones evolutivas. En este contexto recopilamos información mediante una revisión bibliográfica de los métodos comúnmente utilizados para delimitar áreas de distribución así como sus requerimientos, ventajas e inconvenientes. Nos centramos en algoritmos que utilizan registros de observaciones de especies como el Minimum Convex Polygon (MCP), Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) y k, r y a Local Convex Hulls (LoCoH). Evaluamos también como de robustos son estos algoritmos a variaciones en las características de las áreas de distribución (forma y fragmentación) y la cantidad y calidad de los datos, incluyendo el efecto de sesgos y errores. Finalmente, en base a los resultados obtenidos, elaboramos un procedimiento heurístico que permita definir las áreas de distribución a partir de información de presencia para una especie focal dada e información de otras especies en los lugares donde no hay información para la especie de estudio y que, a su vez, pueda ser implementado de manera automática en los servidores de información de biodiversidad.?
338,9MB 163
16_03_2017, Dailos Hernández Brito
Título: Relaciones Ecológicas entre Especies Invasoras de Psitácidos y los Nuevos Medios que Ocupan Resumen: Las invasiones biológicas son una seria amenaza para la conservación de la biodiversidad global, la economía y el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas. Entre estas especies invasoras, los loros (Psittaciformes) son uno de los grupos de aves más extendidos debido a su extensa comercialización internacional como mascotas (el 16% de las especies de psitácidos han establecido poblaciones salvajes fuera de sus áreas de distribución nativa). Sin embargo, se desconocen sus impactos reales, especialmente los que ocasionan sobre la biota nativa de los ecosistemas receptores. En este contexto, la presente Tesis Doctoral tiene como objetivo fundamental evaluar las interacciones ecológicas e impactos de las especies exóticas/invasoras de psitácidos en distintos ambientes y comunidades biológicas. En particular, se utilizan como modelo de estudio las dos especies de loros de mayor distribución y éxito de invasión (la cotorra de Kramer, Psittacula krameri, y la cotorra argentina, Myiopsitta monachus), para evaluar los procesos de competencia por recursos (sitios de nidificación), el comensalismo y la facilitación de nuevos recursos para las especies nativas, y analizar el rol de estas especies invasoras como dispersores de semillas de plantas nativas y exóticas.
518,9MB 179
16_03_2017, Vanina Tonzo
Título: Genomic divergence along the speciation continuum in a recent evolutionary radiation of montane grasshoppers Resumen: Understanding the processes that generate and maintain biological diversity and how these interact with landscape history is a central theme in biogeography and evolutionary biology. Information across the whole spatiotemporal spectrum at which these processes take place is also necessary to preserve biodiversity at its different levels, from ecosystems and communities to unique intraspecific evolutionary processes. The study of recent evolutionary radiations is particularly attractive to address these questions because the signatures of such events have not been fully erased by time and thus provide the potential to infer processes from patterns in genetic data. The goal of this project is to integrate next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques, detailed phenotypic information and spatial modelling to unravel the factors promoting recent evolutionary radiations and infer the underlying evolutionary processes behind spatial patterns of genetic, ecological and phenotypic divergence. This project will use as model a species complexe of montane grasshoppers of the genera Omocestus (subgenus Dreixius) to understand the consequences of past climatic changes and the role of geography, environment and adaptation processes in species diversification phenomena and regional and local intraspecific patterns of genomic variation.
232,2MB 163
16_04_2015 Alba Estrada, What can life-history traits tell us about species’ ability to cope with climate change
What can life-history traits tell us about species’ ability to cope with climate change? Understanding the factors that govern species’ distributions is of utmost importance to predict potential range shifts triggered by climate change. Species' ranges are partially limited by their tolerances to extrinsic environmental conditions such as climate and habitat, and partially determined by species’ capacity to disperse, establish new populations, and proliferate, which are in turn dependent on species’ intrinsic life-history traits. Yet most forecasts of range shifts consider only climate and dispersal. In order to ask whether other factors should be considered, I (and my colleagues) investigated how range filling and range size of European plants, birds and mammals are determined by these factors. We found that traits related to ecological generalization, such as habitat breadth, were important for all groups of species. Dispersal and seed-banks that permit survival during unsuitable environmental conditions were highly important for plants, whereas fecundity-related traits were important for animal groups. We suggest that considering these traits would improve assessments of extinction vulnerability under climate change.
201,5MB 158
17_02_2016, Erika Nol, Are arctic breeding waders getting the squeeze
Prof. Erica Nol Department of Biology, Trent University. Peterborough, Ontario, Canada http://avianconservation.ca/ Title: Are arctic-breeding waders getting the squeeze? Studies on habitat selection of New World waders Abstract: Climate warming in the higher (arctic and sub-arctic) latitudes is causing encroachment of shrubs into previously open habitats. It is also causing the expansion of the range of common avian nest predators, and of course, longer ice-free seasons. How are arctic-breeding waders coping? This talk examines several studies that have explored the impacts of these potential factors on the densities and demography of arctic-breeding waders in northern Canada.
347MB 293
17_06_2015, Steve Beissinger, A Century of Climate and Land_use Impaces on the Metacommunity Dynamics of California Birds and Mammals 510,4MB 105
17_11_2016, Ferran Sayol
Título: Environmental variation and the evolution of large brains in birds Resumen: Environmental variability has long been postulated as a major selective force in the evolution of large brains. To test this hypothesis, we assembled information of brain size for over 1,200 bird species and used remote-sensing analyses to estimate temporal variation in plant productivity. As expected, larger brains (relative to body size) are more likely to occur in species exposed to larger environmental variation throughout their geographic range. Reconstructions of evolutionary trajectories are consistent with the hypothesis that larger brains (relative to body size) have evolved when the species invaded more seasonal regions, although the alternative - that the species already possessed larger brains when invaded more seasonal regions - cannot be ruled out.
286,7MB 271
17_11_2016, Karolina Wocek
Complex admixture revealed by genomic data from modern and historical European bison Summary: Retracing complex population processes that precede extreme bottlenecks may be impossible using data from living individuals. The wisent (Bison bonasus), Europe’s largest terrestrial mammal, exemplifies such a population history, having gone extinct in the wild but subsequently restored by captive breeding efforts. Using low coverage genomic data from modern and historical individuals, we investigate population processes occurring before and after this extinction. Analysis of aligned genomes supports the division of wisent into two previously recognised subspecies, but almost half of the genomic alignment contradicts this population history as a result of incomplete lineage sorting and admixture. Admixture between subspecies populations occurred prior to extinction and subsequently during the captive breeding program. Admixture with the Bos cattle lineage is also widespread but results from ancient events rather than recent hybridisation with domestics. Our study demonstrates the huge potential of historical genomes for both studying evolutionary histories and for guiding conservation strategies.
344,8MB 275
18_01_2018, Carlos Camacho
Long-term monitoring of non-model organisms: challenges and opportunities Birds are one of the most popular models in biological research. However, our knowledge about this group is to a great extent based on a very limited number of species that have been intensively studied because of their high tolerance to capture and handling, among other reasons. This bias is particularly severe in temperate zone species that breed in artificial nest boxes. Monitoring non-conventional taxa with scientific purposes generally poses a major challenge to researchers, but may however reveal alternative life strategies that deviate from the standard assumptions and thereby contribute to a more complete picture of the actual diversity of this group. In this talk, I will present the results of the work carried out by the Estación Biológica de Doñana over the last decade with one of the least known European birds: the red-necked nightjar (Caprimulgus ruficollis).
586,8MB 3
18_05_2017, Luis Santamaria
“Aprender haciendo: la gestión adaptativa como herramienta de respuesta rápida al cambio global”.
611MB 162
18_06_2015, Mar Cabeza, Conservation in the face of Climate Change
Increasing understanding of current and potential impacts of climate change has started to influence research and practice of conservation planning. In this talk, I will give an overview of the work our team does regarding the assessments of climate change impacts, and how assessments and projections can be integrated into conservation plans. I will show how policy and applications lack behind scientific knowledge and highlight important gaps that are unattended by conservation science. But in particular, I will focus on trade-offs. Conservation is often about tradeoffs: tradeoffs between biodiversity and economic interests or trade-offs between the different biodiversity features we want to save. Climate change adds yet another dimension to the trade-offs to be considered and balanced. The optimal allocation of conservation resources in the present is likely largely suboptimal for future conservation. Consequently, there is a need for proactive planning given projected climatic changes. Sophisticated methods for spatial conservation planning have been developed to account for the shifting distributions of species under climate. These approaches often target areas expected to remain climatically suitable, and/or areas that expected to receive species tracking climate change, either functioning as linking corridors or becoming future distribution cores. While aiming at having continuity of spatial protection for many species through time, resources are being cut back from current conservation needs. Yet often such planning exercises rely on rather uncertain future projections, giving equal weight to present distributions and projections. Endorsing the need for proactive planning, I will present examples of such present/future trade-offs and discuss ways of balancing them while accounting for uncertainties in projections. I will then revise whether current EU conservation funding schemes, such as cohesion funds, support near-future conservation needs and proactive conservation. In finishing, I will discuss additional trade-offs that require consideration when planning for climate change at the EU-level, including mitigation and adaptation trade-offs.
390,3MB 61
— 20 Resultados por página
Mostrando el intervalo 21 - 40 de 85 resultados.