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Seminarios

Grabaciones en vídeo de los seminarios de la EBD
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— 20 Resultados por página
Mostrando el intervalo 61 - 80 de 101 resultados.
Nombre Tamaño Descargas
22_02_2018, Eduardo Narbona
Variaciones de color floral producidas por antocianinas: de la visión por los polinizadores a la expresión génica Los pigmentos florales están considerados como una pieza clave en la diversificación de las angiospermas ya que pueden afectar a los grupos de polinizadores que visitan las flores. Las antocianinas son los pigmentos más diversos y ampliamente extendidos entre las plantas con flores y su ruta biosintética es una de las mejores estudiadas. El avance en los campos de la biología molecular y la química orgánica ha permitido identificar los genes, enzimas y moléculas responsables de los cambios de color floral que pueden conllevar procesos de especiación. En esta charla presentaré un estudio sobre la interconexión de distintos niveles de organización cuando se produce un cambio de color floral. Estos cambios conllevan un efecto en el proceso de comunicación planta-polinizador ya que afecta desde la expresión génica asociada a la producción de antocianinas hasta su percepción por los polinizadores. Emplearé como sistema de estudio tres especies de brasicáceas, polinizadas principalmente por himenópteros y que presentan una elevada variación de color producida por la acumulación de antocianinas. Por último, presentaré una nueva metodología basada en fotografía digital que permite estimar de forma no destructiva la cantidad de antocianinas presente en flores y otros órganos vegetales.
561,8MB 36
22_03_2018, Lina López Ricaurte
Drivers influencing the movement ecology of two sympatric kestrels - A comparative study Resumen: The specialists, lesser kestrel, and its close relative, the generalist common kestrel, are two protected raptors breeding in sympatry in southern Spain. In this doctorate thesis project, we want to study the movement ecology of these two falcons in a comparative way. Under the umbrella of individual specialization, we want to study the movement strategies of the two species during commuting flights, energy expenditure, habitat selection and prey selection in three study areas that differ in habitat availability. The main hypothesis is that common kestrels my show individual specialization that will be reflected in their movement strategy while lesser kestrels may be limited by their already highly specialized character.
300,5MB 58
22_06_17, Aurelio Malo
Ponente: Aurelio Malo, Senior Research Associate of Zoology, University of Oxford, Biology Lecturer at St Hilda´s College, University of Oxford, Visiting Researcher at Imperial College London Título: De los genes a las poblaciones: La variabilidad genética y su efecto sobre el uso del espacio, la proporción de sexos y la longevidad Resumen: El debate sobre la importancia relativa de los efectos genéticos y demográficos sobre las poblaciones ha sido uno de los más importantes de las últimas décadas. En esta charla introduciré la importancia de la pregunta en el contexto de degradación ambiental actual y lo que sabemos sobre el tema. Presentare datos empíricos sobre los efectos de la variabilidad genética en caracteres asociados a la eficacia biológica que no han sido explorados hasta la fecha. Para ello utilizare datos de poblaciones naturales de mamíferos, de 2 especies de ratón y de leones. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto primero, la importancia de los estudios longitudinales en poblaciones salvajes para desvelar estos efectos y, segundo, la importancia de la consideración explicita de niveles intermedios de organización biológica, como la fisiología, para comprender la estructura de causalidad que va de los genes al nivel poblacional.
723,1MB 63
22_11_2018, Casper van Leeuwen
"Species movement across aquatic ecosystems" One of the greatest unresolved mysteries since the 19th century is to observe wide distributions of relatively immobile species throughout aquatic ecosystems. How do aquatic plants and small invertebrates disperse across kilometers of ocean or dry land? In this talk I will present my past and current research on the possibility that more mobile animals, especially waterbirds, transport plant seeds and aquatic invertebrates in their digestive system or adhering to their outside. I will talk about laboratory experiments, fieldwork and population genetic analyses.
599,6MB 7
23_02_2017, Sharon Strauss
"Coexistence in close relatives: competition, facilitation and beyond". Summary: Closely related species are expected to share similar ecological niches, yet also compete more strongly with one another. How does that affect their coexistence? Using phylogenetic history to understand ecology has typically been approached with descriptive data sets. Here, I describe some studies in which we explicitly incorporate phylogeny in our experimental design to address the conundrum posed by Darwin.
671,2MB 425
23_03_2017, Hyeun-Ji Lee
Título: Eco-evolutionary dynamics and the evolution of phenotypic plasticity Resumen: My research interests lie in how the interaction between the environment and the genotype can shape phenotypic variation within a species. Variation in phenotypic expression can either result from differential gene expression in response to environmental variability (environmentally-sensitive genes) and/or genetic adaptation to the varying environment along a geographical gradient. I am aiming to answer how the interplay of ecological factors and underlying genetic mechanisms give rise to phenotypic expression, and am incorporating an array of study questions and systems in my dissertation. In my first chapter, I am investigating an intriguing case of continental dwarfism in amphibians, focusing on the natterjack toad Epidalea calamita in southern Spain. The dwarf populations in Doñana are about 30% smaller than conspecific populations only about 60 km North, while lacking an efficient geographical barrier. To fully understand the various factors that are driving the intraspecific size variation in this species, I am incorporating standard metabolic rate analysis, stable isotope analysis, skeletochronolgy, male advertisement call description, female behavioral assays, and population genetics using neutral markers. From my second to fourth chapter, I am using the spadefoot toad Pelobates cultripes to study the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. For my second chapter I am raising and conducting water drop experiments on 10 populations of P. cultripes tadpoles, half of which originate from long lasting ponds and half from ephemeral ponds. Those are predicted to have evolved a different capacity to respond to pond desiccation and accelerate development, thus the phenotypic as well as transcriptomic reaction norm will vary across populations. In continuation of this experiment, I am testing the carry-over effects of the environmental challenges experienced in the larval stage in the terrestrial stage in my third chapter. Further, for my fourth chapter, I am planning on exploring the transgenerational effects of the capacity to respond to environmental stress and aim to describe the paternal and maternal effects separately. To do so, I am going to raise my toads to sexual maturity and conduct the water drop experiment on the F1 generation. For my fifth chapter, I am using the waterflea Daphnia magna, a study system that is more readily manipulated in lab conditions due to its fast reproductive cycle. This will allow me to conduct large-scale experiments comprising several generations and populations. I am planning on conducting an experiment on 2 populations of Daphnia, of which only one will receive a predator cue. Subsequently, I will describe how the phenotypically plastic responses of Daphnia have altered the population dynamics and build a model to describe the weight of phenotypic plasticity on population demography.?
242,4MB 408
23_03_2017, Maria Jesus Rodriguez
Título: Ecological interactions between amphibian larvae and aquatic macrophytes Resumen: Despite the wealth of knowledge of ecology of amphibian larvae, their functional role within aquatic systems is relatively poorly studied. In this thesis we study the interactions between amphibian larvae and other trophic levels present in temporary ponds, especially with aquatic macrophytes. We focus on the effects of tadpole herbivory on native aquatic macrophytes, studying the consequences for the reproductive phenology and effort of the plants, under different contexts of long lasting vs. dry down water levels. Moreover, we are also assessing the effects of an invasive plant, Azolla filoculoides on native macrophytes and zooplankton, and how these effects can cascade onto amphibian larvae. Finally, we are also studying different aspects of the dispersal of seeds of aquatic macrophytes by tadpoles, and the possibility of secondary long distance dispersal as a consequence of bird predation on amphibian larvae.
244,4MB 412
23_06_2016, Simone Fontana, Regularity in the traits of individuals outcompetes other biodiversity metrics in explaining ecosystem properties
Simone Fontana Department of Aquatic Ecology Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Water Science and Technology Títle: Regularity in the traits of individuals outcompetes other biodiversity metrics in explaining ecosystem properties Abstract: Biodiversity affects ecosystem properties through changes in the trait composition and variation of natural communities. Using phytoplankton data obtained across 28 lakes we found that trait evenness - the regularity in distribution of morpho-physiological traits of individual organisms - was the strongest predictor of community resource use and biomass yield. Our results suggest that elucidating the mechanisms linking individual-level trait variation to community dynamics could improve our ability to forecast changes in ecosystem properties across environmental gradients.
533,9MB 473
23_10_2019, Riitta Savolainen, Kari Vepsäläinen
What do socially parasitic Myrmica species teach us about speciation? Riitta Savolainen, Kari Vepsäläinen Department of Biosciences; University of Helsinki; Helsinki - Finland All ants are social, except for specific socially parasitic ants, inquilines. We will focus on inquilinism, the ultimate form of social parasitism, where the inquiline species practically lack own workforce and depend on their host for all colony tasks throughout their life cycle. We will concentrate on selected inquilines of the genus Myrmica. In this genus, several inquiline–host pairs are phylogenetically closest relatives to each other, such pairs having originated independently. This strongly suggests sympatric speciation of the inquiline from its host. We will present ecological, chemical and genetic support for this hypothesis. Finally, we will discuss the debated status of the inquiline of Myrmica rubra—whether it is an intraspecific parasite, an evolutionary lineage speciating from its host, or a good, though young, species.
320,3MB 1
23_11_2017, Miquel Arnedo
Miquel Arnedo Departament de Biologia Evolutiva, Ecologia i Ciències Ambientals, Fac. Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona. Hopping, splitting or shifting: How to diversify in isolation? Insights from the spider world Islands are the test-tube experiments of evolutionary biologist and have played a fundamental role in our current understanding of diversification. Processes such as adaptive radiation and convergent evolution are trademarks of island biotas. However, isolated ecosystems do also offer ample opportunities for non-ecologically driven speciation. Because of their airborne dispersal capabilities, spiders are among the first settlers of remote islands and their predatory habits and ability to endure starvation makes them important component of other isolated ecosystems, such as caves and mountain tops. In this presentation, I will review some of the research conducted in my lab on the diversification of spiders on island-like systems and will discuss its main drivers, and the underlying similarities and idiosyncrasies of the evolutionary process in remote and extreme habitats.
731,1MB 39
24_02_2015 Magdalena Zabek, Population dynamics of feral horses in Australia
Australia has the largest population of feral horses (Equus ferus caballus) in the world, with some one million feral horses occupying the diverse and often remote Australian environments. Despite numerous concerns raised by government agencies, private landholders, and the general public on feral horse presence in the Australian ecosystems, there is lack of collective solutions on the management of this overabundant species. In this talk I focus on two studies from my PhD research that relate to measurement of the main vital parameters of the population of feral horses, which occupies a unique coniferous environment in Australia. I will first discuss a method for measuring reproduction and survivorship of the population. I show that estimation of these parameters could be used for modelling the annual population growth rate, which in turn could be used for long-term population management. I will then screen a documentary, which depicts for the first time the social organisation of feral horses in Australia in an attempt to understand the biology of the species and their relationship with the environment. With this work I demonstrate the value of understanding the ecology of feral animals and encourage future managers and government organisations to cooperate in the formulation of the appropriate feral horse management programs in Australia and elsewhere.
299,4MB 44
25_02_2016, Candelaria Rodríguez, Opportunistic pollination by birds and lizards in the Canary Islands
The reproductive success depend on the animal’s effectiveness and the context in which the mutualism occurs. The present thesis is about the interplay between these two aspects in the mutualism of pollination. We try to meet the challenge with a particular group of pollinators, opportunistic nectar-feeding vertebrates, in a particular context, oceanic islands. Due to their intrinsic ecological conditions, oceanic islands favour the appearance of depauperate and disharmonic assemblages of opportunistic pollinators, whose effectiveness and level of context dependence may differ significantly from those of continental systems. In the concrete case of the Canary Islands, passerine birds and lacertid lizards are frequent floral visitors of native flora, but their pollination ecology has remained almost unknown. For this reason, the present thesis follows a dual objective: first to experimentally demonstrate the effectiveness of birds and lizards as pollinators and analyse the potential differences between both functional groups, to then understand how their benefits on plant fitness vary under the presence of antagonists.
377,5MB 746
25_10_2019, Erica Crespi
Effects of rising salinity in freshwater environments on amphibian health: Case studies of wood frogs Salinity of freshwater systems is increasing due to habitat modification, road salt run-off, industrial/mining wastes, and sea level rise. Because amphibians are adapted for life in freshwater systems, even small increases in salinity can be physiologically stressful, causing disruption of homeostasis with direct and indirect negative health consequences. In this seminar, I will discuss my research examining the health effects of anthropogenic increases in salinity across life history stages on wood frogs, Lithobates sylvaticus, in two different contexts: road salt run-off and habitat disturbance.
779,7MB 5
25_11_2015 Agustin Paviolo Proyecto Yaguarete, Investigaciones para conservar el jaguar en el Bosque Atlántico de Argentina
Dr. Agustín Paviolo Investigador del CONICET-Instituto de Biología Subtropical Facultad de Ciencias Forestales, Univ. Nac. de Misiones "Proyecto Yaguareté: Investigaciones para conservar el jaguar en el Bosque Atlántico de Argentina" El jaguar ha pedido cerca del 95% de su distribución en Argentina y esta críticamente amenazado. Desde el año 2003 desarrollamos investigaciones sobre el estado poblacional de la especie y sus principales amenazas para generar información que sirva de base para el desarrollo de estrategias de conservación. Para obtener la información básica hemos utilizado distintas metodologías incluyendo relevamientos con cámaras trampas, muestreo de participativos, seguimiento de individuos mediante collares GPS y técnicas genéticas. Para el análisis de datos hemos usado distintos enfoques desarrollando diferentes modelos de hábitat, y hemos utilizado modelos de captura-recaptura para la estimación de densidad. Hemos desarrollado un análisis de viabilidad poblacional y utilizamos modelos de conectividad del paisaje para evaluar distintas alternativas para mantener el hábitat de la especie. Durante la charla recorreré los distintos pasos que hemos dado durante el proceso y las nuevas investigaciones en marcha. Para más información sobre nuestro trabajo pueden visitar www.proyectoyagurete.com.ar o www.facebook.com/proyaguarete
297,9MB 30
26_01_2016, Love Dalén, Using palaeogenomes to explore the evolutionary history of Pleistocene Megafauna
Genomic data from samples that originate from different time periods (heterochronous samples) provide a unique opportunity to directly examine temporal changes in genome-wide diversity. Moreover, genomic data from different points in time can also be used to infer genome-wide mutation rates, which in turn can be used to assess the timing of demographic changes and population divergence events. The aim of this presentation is to showcase how such analyses can be done, using data from woolly mammoth and wolf as examples.
371,7MB 31
26_01_2017, Irene Paredes
Ponente: Irene Paredes Losada (Departamento de Ecología de Humedales) Título: Presión antrópica y calidad del agua en Doñana Resumen: Doñana es uno de los humedales más emblemáticos y de mayor extensión en Europa, aunque al igual que muchos otros humedales en el mundo, se encuentra amenazado por la continua presión de las actividades humanas. Una de las principales amenazas en Doñana es la contaminación por nutrientes debido a la intensa actividad agrícola, industrial y a los núcleos urbanos del entorno que, junto con las condiciones climáticas de esta región, han provocado episodios de eutrofización y han contribuido al establecimiento de nueva especies invasoras en la marisma. En este contexto, el objetivo de esta tesis es precisamente ampliar el conocimiento sobre el origen y la contribución relativa de las principales fuentes de nutrientes, en especial del nitrógeno, que llegan a la marisma a través de los arroyos vertientes. En primer lugar, se usarán datos históricos de concentración de nutrientes en la marisma de Doñana para determinar las variaciones interanuales y los factores potenciales (antrópicos y climáticos) que puedan explicar dichas variaciones durante el periodo de estudio (1995-2010). En segundo lugar, se explorarán las variaciones intranuales y espaciales de datos de concentración de nutrientes recogidos en la marisma y arroyos vertientes entre 2013 y 2016. En tercer lugar, se emplearán los isótopos estables para determinar el origen del nitrógeno que llega a los arroyos y a la marisma usando como indicadores dos especies de macrófitas acuáticas (castañuela y espadaña) y los nitratos (NO3-) disueltos en el agua. De ellos se obtendrá la firma isotópica del nitrógeno (?15N) con la que se analizará la variación espacial y se intentará cuantificar la contribución relativa de las distintas fuentes antrópicas (fertilizantes, aguas residuales) en el aporte de nitrógeno a estos sistemas acuáticos. Finalmente, tanto los resultados de concentración de nutrientes como los de isótopos estables se cruzarán con datos climáticos y de usos del suelo del entorno de Doñana para la interpretación de los mismos.?
271,3MB 365
26_01_2017, Vanessa Cespedes
Ponente: Vanessa Céspedes Castejón (Departamento de Ecología de Humedales) Título: El hemiptero invasor Trichocorixa verticalis y sus interacciones con los coríxidos nativos y los ácaros acuáticos Resumen: El coríxido invasor americano Trichocorixa verticalis verticalis se citó por primera vez en la Península Ibérica en el Algarve en 1997 y desde entonces se ha extendido dentro y fuera de Doñana, encontrándose en el delta del Guadalquivir, así como en otros lugares de interés de conservación de Andalucía, incluyendo humedales RAMSAR y Reservas Naturales. El éxito de una invasión depende en gran medida de cómo se enfrente a nuevas condiciones ambientales, tanto abióticas (requerimientos fisicoquímicos) como biológicas (interacciones con competidores nativos, con depredadores y parásitos (especialmente ácaros acuáticos)). La presente tesis investiga el papel de estos factores (abióticos -bióticos) involucrados en una invasión, haciendo hincapié en el papel de los ácaros acuáticos como limitante de la invasión.
312,7MB 381
26_10_2015, Mark JF Brown, Emerging diseases in bumblebees
Mark JF Brown (Professor in Evolutionary Ecology & Conservation Royal Holloway, University of London) Título: Emerging diseases in bumblebees Resumen: Emerging infectious diseases are a major threat to biodiversity and human health. Such diseases and the parasites/pathogens that cause them - in particular the Varroa mite and viruses - are known to be one of the main drivers of honey bee declines. I will talk about evidence for emerging infectious diseases in wild bees, particularly bumble bees, and whether they may play a role in bumble bee declines.
193,7MB 32
26_11_2018, Daniel Moen
"The evolution of diversity in morphology and species richness in frogs and toads of the world". Species richness and morphological diversity often vary drastically among groups of closely related organisms. Why are some groups more diverse than others? What are the ecological factors that drive such differences? In this talk, I will discuss two recent studies in which I examine the importance of microhabitat use in determining both body form, and thus morphological diversity in some groups, as well as differences in diversification rate, which closely relates to species diversity. In the first part of the talk, I will discuss morphological convergence and the scales (both temporal and spatial) at which it is typically observed. I then will describe a study that examined the relative importance of similar microhabitat use versus shared evolutionary history in determining body form in anurans (frogs and toads). In the second part of the talk, I will explore the relative importance of microhabitat use and climatic factors on diversification rates in anurans. Finally, I will describe recent work in my lab to better characterize and understand diversity in microhabitat, morphology, and functional performance across clades of frogs, highlighting recent fieldwork in Madagascar.
840,4MB 3
27_04_2017, Bruno Suarez
Título: Assembly patterns of mammal communities in a fragmented agroecosystem Resumen: The recognition of the structure of ecological communities is the main objective of community ecology. Observed patterns are fundamental to know the relative importance of the different factors that determine the structure of these ecological communities. This is because once the pattern is recognized, the question is to investigate which are the underlying processes causing that pattern. Currently, species local coexistence is better understood considering not only environmental factors or interactions among species, but also the regional distribution of the species under study. The general aim of the Thesis is to describe the assembly patterns of mammal communities in a fragmented agroecosystem and infer possible underlying processes that may cause these patterns. To do this, we follow a regional-to-local perspective.
267,4MB 414
— 20 Resultados por página
Mostrando el intervalo 61 - 80 de 101 resultados.