Seminarios pasados

Lista Dinámica Seminarios

  • Título: Biodiversity, crop pollination, and multi-dimentional landscapes
    • Centro: 

      *

    • Autor: 

      Lucas Garibaldi

    • Fecha: 

      19 - octubre - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Sala de Juntas EBD-CSIC, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Concerns regarding the ecological footprint of conventionally intensified agriculture are global. Ecological intensification, or the improvement of crop yield through enhancement of biodiversity, may be a sustainable pathway toward greater food supplies. Such sustainable increases may be especially important for the 2 billion people reliant on small farms, many of which are undernourished, yet we know little about the efficacy of this approach. Using a coordinated protocol across regions and crops, we quantify to what degree enhancing pollinator density and richness can improve yields on 344 fields from 33 pollinator-dependent crop systems in small and large farms from Africa, Asia, and Latin America. For fields less than 2 hectares, we found that yield gaps could be closed by a median of 24% through higher flower-visitor density. For larger fields, such benefits only occurred at high flower-visitor richness. Worldwide, our study demonstrates that ecological intensification can create synchronous biodiversity and yield outcomes.

  • Título: Browsing and grazing effects of feral horses on forest and grassland composition and structure
    • Centro: 

      Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

    • Autor: 

      Pablo Garrido

    • Fecha: 

      10 - octubre - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Sala de Juntas EBD-CSIC, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Wood-pastures are multi-functional habitats that uphold high ecological and cultural values. However, they are currently declining in Europe as a result of land use changes, modulated by agricultural intensification or abandonment. Large herbivores may be utilized for wood-pasture restoration and management. To test whether Gotland ponies could serve as tool for wood-pasture restoration, a three year field experiment with paired control (herbivore exclusion) and experimental plots was applied at three different 10 ha wood-pasture enclosures replicates, where four one year old stallions were introduced per enclosure. We tested whether browsing had an effect on the forest structure by comparing tree height/diameter ratios in experimental (grazed) and controls and, and on the forest composition, and therefore quantified 1) browsing pressure estimates, 2) tree consumption estimates and 3) tree selectivity estimates that ultimately conform a management “tool-kit” for wood-pasture restoration and management. In grassland dominated areas, we used community-weighted means of plant functional traits to elucidate plant community changes induced by grazing and abandonment (ungrazed) conditions. We tested for plant-insect co-dependent functional traits to investigate the response on insect pollinated plants and the subsequent effects on habitat utilization of butterfly and bumble bee communities. The grassland community exerted a mixed tolerance-avoidance response to grazing. This resulted in a gradual change of the community composition which favored prostrate plant species (low plant height at maturity, H) with high specific leaf area (SLA), characteristic of ruderal (R) communities. Plant species richness was significantly higher in grazed compared to ungrazed plots. Butterfly and bumble bee species richness and feeding-resting activities were higher in grazed areas, except for butterfly feeding where no significant effect was found; this was also true for the number of generalist and specialist butterfly species. We found a positive relation between pollinator species richness and feeding activities, and plant species richness. The abandonment of semi-natural grasslands can have rapid pernicious effects on plant species richness and composition and consequent effects on pollinator communities. Thus, the re-introduction of large herbivores may offset the general rapid biodiversity decline in agricultural landscapes by maintaining important functional links between plants and pollinators in grassland ecosystems. Urgent solutions to be found to tackle wood-pasture abandonment and biodiversity losses of semi-natural grasslands for our increasingly abandoned European agricultural landscapes.

  • Título: What shapes spatial invasion patterns of alien birds in Australia vs. Europe?
    • Centro: 

      University of Queensland

    • Autor: 

      Salit Kark

    • Fecha: 

      05 - octubre - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Sala de Juntas EBD-CSIC, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      I will talk about the factors shaping invasive species richness and distribution in Europe and Australia at large scales and will also present several case studies from our work on interactions between invasive and native birds from around the world, with focus on parrots, starlings, mynas and more.

  • Título: Can RAD-Seq help sea turtle conservation?
    • Centro: 

      Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research , Berlin. Department of Evolutionary Genetics

    • Autor: 

      Camila Mazzoni

    • Fecha: 

      28 - septiembre - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Sala de Juntas EBD-CSIC, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      From vulnerable to critically endangered, the seven existing sea turtle species have long suffered from anthropogenic actions, such as overhunting/poaching, large-scale fishing activities, pollution and habitat degradation. Different phenomena such as hybridization and extreme low molecular diversity have been detected for some populations in different studies, but it is unclear how the recent pressures have been involved in changes in the evolutionary history of sea turtles. The amount and diversity of molecular markers available to study such influences is still very low and analyses lack statistical confidence in many cases due to low variation and/or high levels of shared SNPs. We have decided to use one single genomic approach that can boost the number and variety of nuclear molecular markers available for all sea turtle species. Assuming a deceleration of evolutionary rates in sea turtles, we have used the same Double-Digest Restriction Associated DNA (ddRAD) sequencing methodology for the five sea turtle species with worldwide distribution and generated thousands of new molecular markers that will be useful for a large number of important conservational questions, such as levels of population structuring and composition of mixed-stock. The approach we present in this study is a simple but effective solution to largely deepen the knowledge upon ddRAD data produced that can be transferred to virtually any given species or population.

  • Título: Conservation downunder: New Zealand’s challenge with invasive species
    • Centro: 

      Centre for Biodiversity and Biosecurity, University of Auckland

    • Autor: 

      Jacqueline Beggs

    • Fecha: 

      21 - septiembre - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Sala de Juntas EBD-CSIC, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Understanding the processes and key drivers of biodiversity loss is fundamental in halting the decline. New Zealand was one of the last large land masses to be colonised by humans, so the consequences of human arrival are still playing out. Although we have made great strides in managing some invasive species, there remain many challenges if we are to retain the essence of a biota that was isolated for 80 million years. Using examples from my involvement with conservation research, from the iconic k?k?p? (nocturnal, ground parrot), to the ecology and control of introduced northern hemisphere social wasps I will discuss the key challenges for conservation in New Zealand.

  • Título: Ornitología histórica (S.XIX, y XX) en Cataluña y Menorca
    • Centro: 

      Dep. Biologia Animal, Universitat de Barcelona

    • Autor: 

      Xavier Ferrer

    • Fecha: 

      07 - septiembre - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Sala de Juntas, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      La historia de la ornitología española en el S.XIX y primera mitad del XX está constituida por materiales pobres, dispersos, de difícil acceso, a menudo mal documentados, y muy poco estudiados. En este seminario presentaré las investigaciones que he hecho sobre ornitología histórica de Cataluña y Menorca. Se tratará el acceso a fuentes de información (archivos, colecciones, literatura gris) con ejemplos concretos sobre el efecto del esfuerzo de muestreo, citas invernales, rapaces, y biografías de los ornitólogos y naturalistas más relevantes de la época. Se mostrarán fotografías históricas inéditas de mi archivo personal

  • Título: Efectos combinados de las presiones del cambio global en polinizadores
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Carlos Zaragoza

    • Fecha: 

      19 - enero - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Cabimer, 13:30

    • Resumen: 

      La polinización mediada por insectos es un proceso fundamental para los ecosistemas terrestres así como para la producción de cultivos, siendo este un servicio ecosistémico clave para la humanidad. Las poblaciones de abejas están en declive como consecuencia de las presiones de los diferentes factores del cambio global existiendo una creciente evidencia que indica que estas presiones no actúan de manera aislada teniendo efectos interactivos complejos no aditivos. En la presente tesis trataremos de analizar la interacción de varios de estos factores de manera conjunta mediante experimentos en campo en taxones modelo con diferentes historias de vida.

  • Título: Life history evolution in a changing world: /r/- versus /K/-selection and the adaptive alignment of pace-of-life syndromes
    • Centro: 

      NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norway)

    • Autor: 

      Jonathan Wright

    • Fecha: 

      08 - junio - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      This presentation describes a novel perspective on life history evolution that combines recent advances in /r/- versus /K/-selection theory with behavioural ecology theory on pace-of-life syndromes (POLS). These theories predict phenotypic co-variation in life history, physiological, morphological and behavioural traits as a continuum from the fast reproducing short-lived bold, aggressive and highly dispersive /r/-selected types at one end of the POLS to the slow reproducing long-lived cautious, shy, plastic and socially-responsive /K/-selected types at the other. We propose that such variation in life histories and the associated individual differences in behaviour can be explained through their eco-evolutionary dynamics with population density – a single and ubiquitous selective component that is present in all biological systems. Contrasting regimes of environmental stochasticity are expected to affect population density in time and space and create differing patterns of fluctuating /r/- versus /K/-selection, and this generates variation in fast versus slow life-histories within and between populations. We therefore predict that a major axis of phenotypic and genetic co-variation in life history, physiological, morphological and behavioural traits (i.e. the POLS) should align with the major trade-off in the multivariate fitness landscape created by these fluctuations in /r/- versus /K/-selection. Phenotypic plasticity and/or genetic (co-)variation generated along this major axis in life history trait co-variation is thus expected to facilitate rapid and adaptively coordinated changes in various aspects of life history within and between populations and/or species. In addition, negative frequency-dependent selection on the different individual types, such as on fast aggressive /r/-types of individuals when at high densities, could further exaggerate phenotypic variation along the POLS caused by fluctuations in population density. The /r/- vs /K/-selection POLS framework presented here therefore provides a series of clear and testable predictions, the results of which will further our fundamental understanding of life history evolution and thus our ability to predict natural population dynamics in the face of environmental change.?

  • Título: De los genes a las poblaciones: La variabilidad genética y su efecto sobre el uso del espacio, la proporción de sexos y la longevidad
    • Centro: 

      University of Oxford, UK

    • Autor: 

      Aurelio Malo

    • Fecha: 

      22 - junio - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      El debate sobre la importancia relativa de los efectos genéticos y demográficos sobre las poblaciones ha sido uno de los más importantes de las últimas décadas. En esta charla introduciré la importancia de la pregunta en el contexto de degradación ambiental actual y lo que sabemos sobre el tema. Presentare datos empíricos sobre los efectos de la variabilidad genética en caracteres asociados a la eficacia biológica que no han sido explorados hasta la fecha. Para ello utilizare datos de poblaciones naturales de mamíferos, de 2 especies de ratón y de leones. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto primero, la importancia de los estudios longitudinales en poblaciones salvajes para desvelar estos efectos y, segundo, la importancia de la consideración explicita de niveles intermedios de organización biológica, como la fisiología, para comprender la estructura de causalidad que va de los genes al nivel poblacional.

  • Título: Highlights from a long term study of sparrowhawks (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Natural Environment Research Council

    • Autor: 

      Ian Newton

    • Fecha: 

      13 - junio - 2014

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Sevilla, Cabimer, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      This talk, which is the result of a 30-year study, will discuss the factors that influence the population levels of Sparrowhawks, including habitat, food supply, and nest sites. It will discuss the lifetime reproduction of individuals, and age-related changes in the reproduction, survival and behaviour of individuals, and how these measures relate to territory quality. Many findings from this species are also applicable to other birds of prey, and also to some non-raptorial birds. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k7Fu_4tRXzo

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  • Título: Bird migration (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      Centre for Ecology & Hydrology Wallingford, OXON Lancaster, United Kingdom

    • Autor: 

      Ian Newton

    • Fecha: 

      07 - junio - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Sala de Juntas EBD-CSIC, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Dr. Ian Newton earned a Ph.D. at Oxford University under the tutelage of David Lack. He has been interested in birds since his childhood. As a teenager he became particularly fascinated by finches, and undertook doctoral and post-doctoral studies on them. His interest in that group has continued to the present time. Beginning in the 1970s, Dr. Newton conducted extensive research on the long-term impacts of organochlorine pesticides on several raptor species, and on the population ecology of the Eurasian Sharrowhawk. His 30-year study of a Eurasian Sparrowhawk population nesting in southern Scotland has resulted in what many consider to be the most detailed and longest-running study of any population of birds of prey. In 1979, he produced the classic book, “Population Ecology of Raptors,” and a comprehensive monograph on the Eurasian Sparrowhawk followed in 1986. Dr. Newton’s research in avian population ecology focuses on the factors that limit bird numbers and distributions, including pesticide impacts. From 1989-2000, Ian headed the Avian Biology Section at the Monks Wood Research Station, and has continued his research on raptors since his “retirement” in 2000. He has authored, or co-authored, 13 books, published over 300 technical papers, and made frequent television and radio appearances. He has served as President of the British Ornithologists’ Union and the British Ecological Society, as Chairman of the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds in the United Kingdom, and of The Peregrine Fund in the United States. He is the current Chairman of the British Trust for Ornithology. Dr. Newton has received numerous awards, including Order of the British Empire, the Union Medal and Goodman-Salvin Medal of the British Ornithologists’ Union, and the Elliot Coues Award of the American Ornithologists’ Union. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x02ewExbPkw

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  • Título: Seed-dispersal interactions in a fragmented biodiversity hotspot – a metanetwork approach (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      UNESP/EBD-CSIC

    • Autor: 

      Carine Emer

    • Fecha: 

      13 - julio - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Cabimer / 13:00 hrs

    • Resumen: 

      Bird seed-dispersal (BSD) interactions can function as mobile links to connect fragmented forests by scaling-up from within-fragment networks to a spatial metanetwork linked by shared interactions. We explored the structure of a metanetwork of BSD-interactions from 16 fragments of a biodiversity hotspot, the Atlantic Forest, to test whether a distinct subset of BSD-interactions may mediate connectivity among forest fragments. We found high beta-diversity and turnover of interactions among fragments, forming an interaction-rich, modular and poorly connected metanetwork. Larger, less-disturbed tracts harboured distinct interactions vanishing in smaller-area fragments (<10,000 ha) which, in turn, harboured new combinations of interacting species, generating geographic variation across large spatial scales. Potential mobile links constituted a distinct subset of interactions, involving generalist small-bodied bird species and small-seeded, fast-growing plant species. We unveiled specific BSD-interactions as the metanetwork components potentially connecting forest fragments and persisting facing defaunation and fragmentation, possibly leading to long-term changes of forest structure. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q7hdPtNAnhs

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  • Título: The cost of begging: Does it exist? And if so, is it necessary for guaranteeing honest parent-offspring communication? (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      Departamento de Zoología. Universidad de Granada

    • Autor: 

      Gregorio Moreno-Rueda

    • Fecha: 

      27 - julio - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Cabimer, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Several theoretical models on the evolution of begging predicts that begging must be costly to be an honest, and evolutionarily stable, signal of need. However, the empirical search for begging cost has been unsuccessful, with proposed costs of begging, such as energy, attraction of predators, or reduced growth, not being universal or sufficient to explain the evolution of begging. Nonetheless, recent research points to a cost of begging in the form of reduced immunocompetence. Laboratory experiments with an array of bird species repetitively support the contention of a negative correlation between begging effort and immunocompetence. Moreover, my co-workers and I have shown that the negative impact of begging on immune system is not compensated by the increased ingest of food in fiercely begging nestlings. Furthermore, in a long-term field experiment, we have modified begging behaviour of pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) nestlings, finding that begging level is under natural selection, and that its trade-off with immune system is key for understanding the impact of begging on fitness. In overall, although the subjacent cause of the relationship between begging and immune system remains unclear, recent findings suggest that offspring begging exaggeratedly may incur in an immunological cost, which has shaped the evolution of begging. However, these empirical results, demonstrating that begging is associated with a “cost”, do not demonstrate that such a cost is necessary for begging to be honest and evolutionarily stable. Begging, as other behaviours, might be inevitably associated to physiological processes, conducing to unavoidable trade-offs. In fact, several mathematical models predict that cheap begging may be honest and evolutionarily stable. The model in which I am working, as other models, predicts that begging does not require be costly to be honest, but the cost increases information contained in the signal. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0cq3lwHKN80

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  • Título: Biogeographic insights from past and present megafauna DNA (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      Natural History Museum of Denmark

    • Autor: 

      Eline Lorenzen

    • Fecha: 

      31 - mayo - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Sala de Juntas EBD-CSIC, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Next-generation DNA sequencing has revolutionized the way we can study evolutionary and ecological processes using genomic data. In this talk, I will show how genomic data can be used in an evolutionary and ecological context, to understand the past and present diversity, distribution, and dynamics of megafauna (large mammal) species and communities. I will discuss how DNA retrieved from ancient material including the bones, teeth and gut content of Late Pleistocene megafauna can be used to infer the past ecology and population dynamics of extinct species, and demonstrate how DNA extracted from sediments can be used to reconstruct the palaeoenvironments once inhabited by these Ice Age giants. Furthermore, using genome-wide data from the polar bear, I will demonstrate how population genomics has been used to estimate the age of the species, reconstruct the joint demographic history of polar bear and brown bear, and identify candidate genes under positive selection in the polar bear lineage that have enabled the species to survive the extreme conditions of life in the High Arctic. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a6Zw7bHEULk

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  • Título: Aprender haciendo: la gestión adaptativa como herramienta de respuesta rápida al cambio global
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Luis Santamaria

    • Fecha: 

      18 - mayo - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Aprender haciendo: la gestión adaptativa como herramienta de respuesta rápida al cambio global VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nMDs_A33BNU

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  • Título: The Tree of Lice: The History of Host-Parasite Coevolution (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      University of Illinois

    • Autor: 

      Kevin P. Johnson

    • Fecha: 

      11 - mayo - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Parasites are model systems for linking microevolutionary processes with macroevolutionary patterns. Avian feather lice spend their entire lifecycle on the body of their host and are highly host specific. Variation in host specificity across different groups of dove feather lice is related to differences in dispersal ability, which translates into differences in how much the evolutionary tree of lice matches that of their hosts. Across feather lice more broadly, genera differ in how they escape host preening defenses, having repeatedly evolved into head, wing, and body lice, often diverging within a single host group. New phylogenomic techniques using an automated Target Restricted Assembly (aTRAM) method can assemble thousands of genes from genome sequences of lice, which have relatively small genomes. Phylogenies based on these genes are highly supported and provide new insights into the higher level relationships of lice. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0gTE1C18-cY

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  • Título: Invasión del cangrejo rojo americano, Procambarus clarkii: origen, mecanismos responsables de su éxito invasor y consecuencias de la invasión (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Fran Oficialdegui

    • Fecha: 

      27 - abril - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:30

    • Resumen: 

      Las invasiones biológicas son consideradas, hoy en día, una de las principales y más severas causas de pérdida de biodiversidad, y específicamente, en ecosistemas dulceacuícolas. Desde un punto de vista multidisciplinar, esta tesis se centra en el estudio de una de las especies invasoras más conocidas y extendidas a lo largo de todo el mundo: el cangrejo rojo americano (Procambarus clarkii). En grandes líneas, los objetivos son (1) conocer la historia de la invasión en Europa desde un punto de vista filogeográfico, la estructura y conectividad entre las distintas poblaciones; (2) estudiar la expresión de proteínas para saber cómo los individuos hacen frente a nuevas condiciones abióticas; (3) evaluar la compleja interacción entre dos especies invasora de cangrejo (Procambarus clarkii y Pacifastacus leniusculus); y finalmente, evaluar las consecuencias de la invasión sobre (4) especies de macroinvertebrados, (5) anfibios a causa de la quitridiomicosis y (6) otras especies de cangrejos nativos europeos a consecuencia de la afanomicosis o peste del cangrejo. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6pvUvZA8kho

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  • Título: Assembly patterns of mammal communities in a fragmented agroecosystem (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Bruno Suárez

    • Fecha: 

      27 - abril - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      The recognition of the structure of ecological communities is the main objective of community ecology. Observed patterns are fundamental to know the relative importance of the different factors that determine the structure of these ecological communities. This is because once the pattern is recognized, the question is to investigate which are the underlying processes causing that pattern. Currently, species local coexistence is better understood considering not only environmental factors or interactions among species, but also the regional distribution of the species under study. The general aim of the Thesis is to describe the assembly patterns of mammal communities in a fragmented agroecosystem and infer possible underlying processes that may cause these patterns. To do this, we follow a regional-to-local perspective. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KNP7EMmrNP8

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  • Título: Eco-evolutionary dynamics and the evolution of phenotypic plasticity (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Hyeun-Ji

    • Fecha: 

      23 - marzo - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:30

    • Resumen: 

      My research interests lie in how the interaction between the environment and the genotype can shape phenotypic variation within a species. Variation in phenotypic expression can either result from differential gene expression in response to environmental variability (environmentally-sensitive genes) and/or genetic adaptation to the varying environment along a geographical gradient. I am aiming to answer how the interplay of ecological factors and underlying genetic mechanisms give rise to phenotypic expression, and am incorporating an array of study questions and systems in my dissertation. In my first chapter, I am investigating an intriguing case of continental dwarfism in amphibians, focusing on the natterjack toad Epidalea calamita in southern Spain. The dwarf populations in Doñana are about 30% smaller than conspecific populations only about 60 km North, while lacking an efficient geographical barrier. To fully understand the various factors that are driving the intraspecific size variation in this species, I am incorporating standard metabolic rate analysis, stable isotope analysis, skeletochronolgy, male advertisement call description, female behavioral assays, and population genetics using neutral markers. From my second to fourth chapter, I am using the spadefoot toad Pelobates cultripes to study the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. For my second chapter I am raising and conducting water drop experiments on 10 populations of P. cultripes tadpoles, half of which originate from long lasting ponds and half from ephemeral ponds. Those are predicted to have evolved a different capacity to respond to pond desiccation and accelerate development, thus the phenotypic as well as transcriptomic reaction norm will vary across populations. In continuation of this experiment, I am testing the carry-over effects of the environmental challenges experienced in the larval stage in the terrestrial stage in my third chapter. Further, for my fourth chapter, I am planning on exploring the transgenerational effects of the capacity to respond to environmental stress and aim to describe the paternal and maternal effects separately. To do so, I am going to raise my toads to sexual maturity and conduct the water drop experiment on the F1 generation. For my fifth chapter, I am using the waterflea Daphnia magna, a study system that is more readily manipulated in lab conditions due to its fast reproductive cycle. This will allow me to conduct large-scale experiments comprising several generations and populations. I am planning on conducting an experiment on 2 populations of Daphnia, of which only one will receive a predator cue. Subsequently, I will describe how the phenotypically plastic responses of Daphnia have altered the population dynamics and build a model to describe the weight of phenotypic plasticity on population demography. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-UY7T-aEEPA

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  • Título: Ecological interactions between amphibian larvae and aquatic macrophytes (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      María Jesús Piñero Rodríguez

    • Fecha: 

      23 - marzo - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Despite the wealth of knowledge of ecology of amphibian larvae, their functional role within aquatic systems is relatively poorly studied. In this thesis we study the interactions between amphibian larvae and other trophic levels present in temporary ponds, especially with aquatic macrophytes. We focus on the effects of tadpole herbivory on native aquatic macrophytes, studying the consequences for the reproductive phenology and effort of the plants, under different contexts of long lasting vs. dry down water levels. Moreover, we are also assessing the effects of an invasive plant, Azolla filoculoides on native macrophytes and zooplankton, and how these effects can cascade onto amphibian larvae. Finally, we are also studying different aspects of the dispersal of seeds of aquatic macrophytes by tadpoles, and the possibility of secondary long distance dispersal as a consequence of bird predation on amphibian larvae. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p-wcvo1TGG4

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  • Título: Genomic divergence along the speciation continuum in a recent evolutionary radiation of montane grasshoppers (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Vanina Tonzo

    • Fecha: 

      16 - marzo - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:30

    • Resumen: 

      Understanding the processes that generate and maintain biological diversity and how these interact with landscape history is a central theme in biogeography and evolutionary biology. Information across the whole spatiotemporal spectrum at which these processes take place is also necessary to preserve biodiversity at its different levels, from ecosystems and communities to unique intraspecific evolutionary processes. The study of recent evolutionary radiations is particularly attractive to address these questions because the signatures of such events have not been fully erased by time and thus provide the potential to infer processes from patterns in genetic data. The goal of this project is to integrate next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques, detailed phenotypic information and spatial modelling to unravel the factors promoting recent evolutionary radiations and infer the underlying evolutionary processes behind spatial patterns of genetic, ecological and phenotypic divergence. This project will use as model a species complexe of montane grasshoppers of the genera Omocestus (subgenus Dreixius) to understand the consequences of past climatic changes and the role of geography, environment and adaptation processes in species diversification phenomena and regional and local intraspecific patterns of genomic variation. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6o_8aCbu0HI

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  • Título: Relaciones Ecológicas entre Especies Invasoras de Psitácidos y los Nuevos Medios que Ocupan (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Dailos Hernández Brito

    • Fecha: 

      16 - marzo - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Las invasiones biológicas son una seria amenaza para la conservación de la biodiversidad global, la economía y el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas. Entre estas especies invasoras, los loros (Psittaciformes) son uno de los grupos de aves más extendidos debido a su extensa comercialización internacional como mascotas (el 16% de las especies de psitácidos han establecido poblaciones salvajes fuera de sus áreas de distribución nativa). Sin embargo, se desconocen sus impactos reales, especialmente los que ocasionan sobre la biota nativa de los ecosistemas receptores. En este contexto, la presente Tesis Doctoral tiene como objetivo fundamental evaluar las interacciones ecológicas e impactos de las especies exóticas/invasoras de psitácidos en distintos ambientes y comunidades biológicas. En particular, se utilizan como modelo de estudio las dos especies de loros de mayor distribución y éxito de invasión (la cotorra de Kramer, Psittacula krameri, y la cotorra argentina, Myiopsitta monachus), para evaluar los procesos de competencia por recursos (sitios de nidificación), el comensalismo y la facilitación de nuevos recursos para las especies nativas, y analizar el rol de estas especies invasoras como dispersores de semillas de plantas nativas y exóticas. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jdIYAmC2dxc

    • Enlace a Documento
  • Título: Desafíos para la persistencia de grandes felinos Neotropicales en paisajes dinámicos dominados por la actividad humana (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Setefilla Buenavista

    • Fecha: 

      09 - marzo - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:30

    • Resumen: 

      Las actividades humanas generan grandes y acelerados cambios globales, cuyos impactos en la naturaleza aumentan conforme crece la presión antrópica. Como consecuencia, la biodiversidad se encuentra amenazada a lo largo y ancho del planeta, siendo un gran número de especies las que han desaparecido o en las que han disminuido sus poblaciones. Sin embargo, recientemente se están proporcionando evidencias a favor de la recuperación del nivel de abundancia y distribución histórica de algunos grandes mamíferos terrestres debido a la recolonización de ciertos ambientes humanizados. La finalidad de este proyecto de tesis es conocer qué efecto tendrán sobre especies con altos requerimientos espaciales, los cambios en el uso del paisaje por motivos socioeconómicos que ocurren en la actualidad y la presencia de nuevas presas provenientes de reintroducciones. Para ello, se analizará si los grandes felinos Neotropicales como el jaguar y el puma, pueden hacer uso de hábitats y de presas producto de la humanización del medio natural. Nuestra hipótesis inicial de trabajo es que la combinación de ciertos cambios en las actividades humanas podría tener un efecto positivo en la recuperación de las poblaciones de estos grandes felinos neotropicales en paisajes humanizados, al reducir los conflictos socioeconómicos que enfrentan a los depredadores con la población rural, y a su vez permitir la persistencia de sus poblaciones en hábitats más favorables para estas especies. Por lo tanto, la viabilidad poblacional de estas especies amenazadas podría modificarse en las áreas más transformadas de su distribución, mejorando su estado de conservación. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HVd9uUgLF28

    • Enlace a Documento
  • Título: Population dynamics of voles: Characterization and modelling of global spatio-temporal patterns (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Rubén Bernardo

    • Fecha: 

      09 - marzo - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      The understanding of the population fluctuations of rodents, especially voles, is fundamental because their ecological, healthy and economic importance. The literature shows a high variety in schools of thought about what the drivers of the population fluctuations are. However no study provides information about the general causes of the population fluctuations. Therefore the global goal of the Thesis is to identify the general trends and drivers of the population fluctuations of voles. Nevertheless, the specific goals of the Thesis are: (1) to provide a public and standardized database with the capture-recapture data of most of the vole populations sampled since 60s; (2) to describe the survival and reproductive rates of the different populations and species; (3) to identify the general drivers of the population changes; and (4) to detect early warning signals of vole outbreaks. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aFNlPuv7nKw

    • Enlace a Documento
  • Título: Uso de datos heterogéneos para la delimitación de áreas de distribución de especies (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Laura Ríos

    • Fecha: 

      16 - febrero - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      El área de distribución de una especie es una construcción conceptual que delimita el área donde está presente en un momento dado. El concepto de área de distribución es central en las disciplinas de biogeografía, macroecología y biología de la conservación, utilizándose a menudo para describir patrones de biodiversidad, informar en la gestión y conservación de recursos naturales, identificar áreas prioritarias para la conservación o investigar relaciones evolutivas. En este contexto recopilamos información mediante una revisión bibliográfica de los métodos comúnmente utilizados para delimitar áreas de distribución así como sus requerimientos, ventajas e inconvenientes. Nos centramos en algoritmos que utilizan registros de observaciones de especies como el Minimum Convex Polygon (MCP), Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) y k, r y a Local Convex Hulls (LoCoH). Evaluamos también como de robustos son estos algoritmos a variaciones en las características de las áreas de distribución (forma y fragmentación) y la cantidad y calidad de los datos, incluyendo el efecto de sesgos y errores. Finalmente, en base a los resultados obtenidos, elaboramos un procedimiento heurístico que permita definir las áreas de distribución a partir de información de presencia para una especie focal dada e información de otras especies en los lugares donde no hay información para la especie de estudio y que, a su vez, pueda ser implementado de manera automática en los servidores de información de biodiversidad. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e-g8w7fCOu0

    • Enlace a Documento
  • Título: Coexistence in close relatives: competition, facilitation and beyond (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      University of Davis, California

    • Autor: 

      Sharon Strauss

    • Fecha: 

      23 - febrero - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Closely related species are expected to share similar ecological niches, yet also compete more strongly with one another. How does that affect their coexistence? Using phylogenetic history to understand ecology has typically been approached with descriptive data sets. Here, I describe some studies in which we explicitly incorporate phylogeny in our experimental design to address the conundrum posed by Darwin. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kph_Z5bsTJM

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  • Título: Diferenciación de poblaciones a pequeña escala: mecanismos ecológicos y evolutivos implicados (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Carlos Camacho

    • Fecha: 

      16 - febrero - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:30

    • Resumen: 

      El intercambio de genes entre poblaciones través de la dispersión se ha considerado tradicionalmente como la principal fuerza que se opone a la diferenciación evolutiva. Sin embargo, estudios recientes muestran que los movimientos de dispersión pueden reforzar la diferenciación de poblaciones cuando el intercambio de individuos se producen de forma no aleatoria en relación a su genotipo o fenotipo particular. Las causas de la dispersión no aleatoria permanecen sin explorar en la mayoría de sistemas naturales y, por tanto, todavía desconocemos en gran medida sus consecuencias ecológicas y evolutivas. Esta tesis doctoral tiene como objetivos (1) caracterizar la diferenciación de poblaciones a pequeña escala espacial (2) estudiar el papel de la dispersión no aleatoria y (3) entender sus consecuencias ecológicas y evolutivas. El sistema de estudio está formado por dos hábitats geográficamente próximos (1 km) aunque ecológicamente distintos (reciente plantación de pinos y antiguo bosque de roble melojo) utilizados para nidificar por una población de papamoscas cerrojillo (Ficedula hypoleuca). Para abordar los objetivos de la tesis, contamos con una amplia base de datos sobre la reproducción, supervivencia y movimientos de los papamoscas obtenida tras más tres décadas de seguimiento (1984-2016) que servirá como complemento a los experimentos (intercambios de pollos) y recogida de datos (dieta y disponibilidad de alimento) que se han llevado a cabo en los últimos años. En este seminario, se expondrán los resultados obtenidos hasta la fecha en relación al efecto del fenotipo, la experiencia y la genética de los individuos sobre los patrones de dispersión y su papel en los procesos microevolutivos. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n7hZRvxHyFo

    • Enlace a Documento
  • Título: Patterns and processes underlying host-parasite population structures (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      MIVEGEC (CNRS, Montpellier, France)

    • Autor: 

      Karen McCoy

    • Fecha: 

      14 - febrero - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Karen's visit is part of the Severo Ochoa’ women in science initiatives aiming at giving visibililty to the achievements and success of international women researchers and so to promote female role models in research that inspire and engage future generation of scientists. In this context, Karen, in addition to the seminar, will be giving a PhD round table same Tuesday 14th at 16h to talk about #WomenInScience VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f5HtruI6ZDk

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  • Título: Regional analysis of temporal trends and horizon scanning of commercial alien species (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Alvaro Bayón

    • Fecha: 

      09 - febrero - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Sala de Juntas EBD-CSIC

    • Resumen: 

      Biological invasions by alien species represent one of the major current threats to diversity. The commercial uses of alien species for recreational or ornamental uses are main pathways for deliberate introduction. The main objective of my thesis is to obtain a scientific analysis of the historical trends for the use of alien species with commercial value in Spain and the prediction of potential related future threats that allows us to carry out preventive actions. The first chapter is at a quite advanced stage. We conducted an ‘horizon scanning’ analysis of outdoor gardening plants commercially available in Spain. For this purpose we compiled a database which includes the vast majority of plant species sold in the market (919) and we classified them according to (1) its invasive status in Spain, including if regulated, (2) its invasive status elsewhere, (3) its climatic suitability for Spain, and (4) its potential ecological and socio-economic impacts. This database will be transferred to the national environmental authorities as the bases for Horizon scanning on potential invasive species in Spain which introduction could be avoided. Another chapter will be on the analyses of historical, functional and phylogenetic trends of planted woody plants in urban parks. Finally, I also plan to conduct an historical analyses of fashions of pets, hunting and sport fishing species based on specialized popular journals. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D8FMTWpqhTA

    • Enlace a Documento
  • Título: A genomic view on the diversification of neotropical frogs (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Santiago Montero-Mendieta

    • Fecha: 

      09 - febrero - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      SALA DE JUNTAS EBD-CSIC, 13:30

    • Resumen: 

      The genus Oreobates is a clade of Neotropical frogs of which very little is known. More than half of the 24-named species have been described in the last ten years. They are distributed across a wide range of habitats and altitudes in South America. Unfortunately, some Oreobates species have been only found once. This is particularly a problem for traditional phylogeography and phylogenetics studies based on data from a few orthologous loci from multiple individuals. With the increasing usage of high throughput sequencing we are now able to sequence big amounts of orthologous loci, allowing the use of less individuals. In organisms with big genome sizes, such as amphibians, a common way to obtain a reduced representation of the genome is by transcriptome sequencing. Using a transcriptome-based exon capture approach, in my PhD thesis I will use thousands of orthologous genes to study evolution rates, demographic history and adaptation patterns on the frogs of the genus Oreobates. The results of this project will allow us to solve questions such as: “Is the evolution rate lower in the highland Oreobates species?”, “Is the genetic diversity larger in montane Oreobates species?” or “Are there any genes related to adaptation to dry forest in Oreobates?” VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Izie9FbXyRg

    • Enlace a Documento
  • Título: El hemiptero invasor Trichocorixa verticalis y sus interacciones con los coríxidos nativos y los ácaros acuáticos (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Vanesa Céspedes Castejón

    • Fecha: 

      26 - enero - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:30

    • Resumen: 

      El coríxido invasor americano Trichocorixa verticalis verticalis se citó por primera vez en la Península Ibérica en el Algarve en 1997 y desde entonces se ha extendido dentro y fuera de Doñana, encontrándose en el delta del Guadalquivir, así como en otros lugares de interés de conservación de Andalucía, incluyendo humedales RAMSAR y Reservas Naturales. El éxito de una invasión depende en gran medida de cómo se enfrente a nuevas condiciones ambientales, tanto abióticas (requerimientos fisicoquímicos) como biológicas (interacciones con competidores nativos, con depredadores y parásitos (especialmente ácaros acuáticos)). La presente tesis investiga el papel de estos factores (abióticos -bióticos) involucrados en una invasión, haciendo hincapié en el papel de los ácaros acuáticos como limitante de la invasión. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D7jeYj3FGqM

    • Enlace a Documento
  • Título: Presión antrópica y calidad del agua en Doñana (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Irene Paredes Losada

    • Fecha: 

      26 - enero - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Doñana es uno de los humedales más emblemáticos y de mayor extensión en Europa, aunque al igual que muchos otros humedales en el mundo, se encuentra amenazado por la continua presión de las actividades humanas. Una de las principales amenazas en Doñana es la contaminación por nutrientes debido a la intensa actividad agrícola, industrial y a los núcleos urbanos del entorno que, junto con las condiciones climáticas de esta región, han provocado episodios de eutrofización y han contribuido al establecimiento de nueva especies invasoras en la marisma. En este contexto, el objetivo de esta tesis es precisamente ampliar el conocimiento sobre el origen y la contribución relativa de las principales fuentes de nutrientes, en especial del nitrógeno, que llegan a la marisma a través de los arroyos vertientes. En primer lugar, se usarán datos históricos de concentración de nutrientes en la marisma de Doñana para determinar las variaciones interanuales y los factores potenciales (antrópicos y climáticos) que puedan explicar dichas variaciones durante el periodo de estudio (1995-2010). En segundo lugar, se explorarán las variaciones intranuales y espaciales de datos de concentración de nutrientes recogidos en la marisma y arroyos vertientes entre 2013 y 2016. En tercer lugar, se emplearán los isótopos estables para determinar el origen del nitrógeno que llega a los arroyos y a la marisma usando como indicadores dos especies de macrófitas acuáticas (castañuela y espadaña) y los nitratos (NO3-) disueltos en el agua. De ellos se obtendrá la firma isotópica del nitrógeno (?15N) con la que se analizará la variación espacial y se intentará cuantificar la contribución relativa de las distintas fuentes antrópicas (fertilizantes, aguas residuales) en el aporte de nitrógeno a estos sistemas acuáticos. Finalmente, tanto los resultados de concentración de nutrientes como los de isótopos estables se cruzarán con datos climáticos y de usos del suelo del entorno de Doñana para la interpretación de los mismos. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m-KN3LlkzgY

    • Enlace a Documento
  • Título: Flexibilidad de comportamiento para afrontar los cambios rápidos inducidos por el hombre (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Miguel Ángel Collado

    • Fecha: 

      19 - enero - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Los cambios ambientales rápidos inducidos por el hombre, tales como la pérdida de habitats naturales son una amenaza para los polinizadores, y aún no sabemos qué especies de polinizadores están preparadas para afrontar estos cambios que suceden y seguirán sucediendo en el futuro. El desconocimiento de la adecuidad de los habitats o de la forma de afrontar los cambios pueden suponer pérdidas de ciertas especies. En esta tesis pretendemos investigar las habilidades que tienen las abejas para afrontar estos cambios, centrándonos un poco más en las abejas solitarias debido a la importancia que tiene en el servicio ecosistémico de la polinización, y comparando especies y rasgos para ver su habilidad plástica de adaptarse a los nuevos medios, viendo cómo utilizan los nuevos habitats que hemos ido modificando y experimentando con ellas para ver como afrontan situaciones nuevas para estudiar su comportamiento. VIDEO: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eRRI1gH7RAY

    • Enlace a Documento
  • Título: Evolutionary dynamics of colour polymorphism in tawny owls Strix aluco
    • Centro: 

      Novia University of Applied Sciences

    • Autor: 

      Patrik Karell

    • Fecha: 

      14 - julio - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Sala de Juntas (EBD) / 13:00 hrs

    • Resumen: 

      A major goal in ecology and evolutionary biology is to understand how environmental change generates a rapid phenotypic response through evolutionary and ecological processes. A particular and currently important form of environmental change is the ongoing global change in climate. There is increasing evidence of micro-evolutionary changes associated with climate and other on selection driven by variation in climate. However, little is known how these are linked and what the underlying physiological adaptations are. A classical way of investigating such adaptation to different environments is the study of genetic colour polymorphism in natural opulations. This is because theory predicts that colour morphs are adaptations to different environments. In this talk I will present long-term data on tawny owl colour polymorphism. I will first show how climate change drives natural selection on colouration and how this translates into micro-evolutionary change. Second, I will present our studies showing the putative mechanisms of this climate-driven selection dealing with plumage insulation, parasite defence and telomere dynamics. Lastly I will present some future prospects of the project.

  • Título: Marco de trabajo de la ICTS(v2): servicios TIC para el apoyo a la investigación. Un caso práctico
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Antonio García y Luis Torres

    • Fecha: 

      25 - mayo - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Tras la finalización del proyecto de internacionalización de la ICTS de la RBD se ha puesto en marcha una infraestructura que proporcionará apoyo a la investigación a través de un conjunto de servicios sobre varios niveles del stack tecnológico corporativo y en su globalidad, conforman un nuevo y potente marco de trabajo. El seminario hará un breve resumen práctico del uso de las diferentes utilidades del framework de la ICTS, pasando desde herramientas habilitadas en los elabs a las disponibles en Observatorio de Cambio Global de Doñana. Se simulará un workflow de trabajo que incluirá, entre otras, la ejecución de scripts de R desde entornos online y el pre-tratamiento y la visualización de datos, tanto gráfica como geoespacialmente.

  • Título: Will climate change increase the success and impacts of invasive species?
    • Centro: 

      Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine

    • Autor: 

      Cascade Sorte

    • Fecha: 

      17 - mayo - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Sala de Juntas EBD-CSIC, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Climate change and biological invasions are two of the greatest threats to global biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Both climate change and invasions have, individually, caused population declines and local extinctions of native species. Furthermore, these threats may not be independent, leading to a “double whammy” for native species if they are simultaneously impacted by climate change and invasive species both directly and indirectly, e.g., via climatedriven increases in invasive species or invasive species impacts on the ability of natives to cope with climate change. In my talk, I address the hypothesis that climate change and species invasions will interact, to the detriment of native species. First, I ask: will invasive species be favored over native species under changing climatic conditions? Secondly, will climate change increase the impacts of invasive species on native species? I draw conclusions from empirical data and results of meta-analyses and syntheses conducted as part of two international, crossecosystem working groups. Together, these findings suggest that climate change is likely to increase the success and impacts of many invasive species. However, the threat varies across taxa, ecosystems, and regions, highlighting the importance of localized prevention and management efforts and scope for restoration under future change.

  • Título: From Microbes to Mountains, exploring ecosystems in a global change context
    • Centro: 

      University of Vermont

    • Autor: 

      Aimeé T Classen

    • Fecha: 

      13 - marzo - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Sala de Juntas EBD-CSIC, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Aimee is an ecosystem and global change ecologist. In the last 10 years she has moved from Tennessee to Copenhagen and very recently she moved to Vermont.

  • Título: Harmush. Expediciones de sondeo faunístico en el Sáhara Atlántico
    • Centro: 

      Harmush Asociación de Estudio y Conservación de Fauna

    • Autor: 

      Antonio Javier Rodríguez Siles

    • Fecha: 

      05 - mayo - 2016

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Siguiendo los pasos de Valverde, HARMUSH, una Asociación de Estudio y Conservación de fauna, formada por biólogos, especialistas zoólogos, investigadores y gente entusiasta de la conservación de especies, presenta un resumen de su reciente libro publicado dónde se recopila toda la información científico-técnica de los resultados obtenidos de las prospecciones faunísticas realizadas en el Sáhara Occidental/Atlántico en busca de caracal, gacelas y guepardos desde el año 2011 al 2014. Colaboramos con la Estación Experimental de Zonas Áridas (CSIC) de Almería y el Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos (CIBIO) de Portugal además de contar con el apoyo institucional de la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos (Madrid) y Universidad Mohamed V de Rabat (Marruecos).

  • Título: Phylogenetic structure and host abundance drive disease pressure in communities (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      University of California, Santa Cruz

    • Autor: 

      Ingrid Parker

    • Fecha: 

      03 - diciembre - 2015

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Pathogens play an important part in shaping the structure and dynamics of natural communities. A shared goal of ecology and epidemiology is to predict when a species is most vulnerable to disease. A leading hypothesis asserts that the impact of disease should increase with host abundance, producing a ‘rare-species advantage’. However, the impact of a pathogen may be decoupled from host abundance, because most pathogens infect more than one species, leading to pathogen spillover onto closely related species. We study how the phylogenetic and ecological structure of the surrounding community can be important predictors of disease pressure in a grassland plant community. We formulate predictive models of pathogen sharing using a global database, then use these models to predict disease pressure at the local scale. We find that we can both explain variation in disease across a community of hosts and predict disease pressure for experimentally introduced novel hosts. Our work has implications for the maintenance of biodiversity, epidemiology, biotic resistance against introduced weeds, and the success of managed plants in agriculture and forestry. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hr6xF4nwsrM

    • Enlace a Documento
  • Título: Plant disease and the maintenance of rare species in plant communities (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      Department of Environmental Studies University of California, Santa Cruz

    • Autor: 

      Gregory S. Gilbert

    • Fecha: 

      20 - enero - 2016

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Cabimer, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Plant pathogens are thought to help maintain diversity in natural plant communities through negative density-dependent effects. Many studies have documented the effects of density of single host species on the spread of individual pathogens and disease development, but most such studies focus on special cases of pathogens with narrow host ranges or managed plant communities with low host diversity. However, we know that most plant pathogens can attack a number of alternative host species, and that host ranges show a significant phylogenetic structure, and that the natural history of different kinds of pathogens varies widely. This means that the spread and impact of disease in complex plant communities depends on the diversity, abundance, and phylogenetic relatedness of local plant species, and different kinds of pathogens may behave differently. Using studies of plant pathogens in California grassland and Panamanian tropical rain forest, I examine the roles of numerical and phylogenetic rarity in understanding the evolutionary ecology of plant disease. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gqv-0VBAWVU

    • Enlace a Documento
  • Título: de parasitosis y virosis en la condición fisiológica y la dinámica poblacional del conejo de monte (Oryctolagus cuniculus) (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      María Isabel Pacios

    • Fecha: 

      04 - febrero - 2016

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Las enfermedades infecciosas constituyen una de las principales amenazas para la conservación de especies silvestres, no obstante el desconocimiento en este campo aún sigue siendo grande en muchos sentidos. El objeto primero de la presente tesis es estudiar los parámetros eco-epidemiológicos en una población silvestre, usando para ello como modelo el conejo de monte (Oryctolagus cuniculus) y sus dos principales virosis: mixomatosis (MV) y enfermedad hemorrágica del conejo (EHCV). Este modelo nos permite estudiar la emergencia y el desarrollo de las enfermedades sobre poblaciones reales en estado de semi-libertad, identificar posibles interacciones de estos agentes patógenos con factores bióticos y/o abióticos y conocer su efecto último sobre la dinámica poblacional. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tXxD6PWtSY0

    • Enlace a Documento
  • Título: Caracterización de las comunidades acuáticas en la cuenca andino amazónica de Madre de Dios - Perú (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      Biología Ambiental y Salud Pública. Universidad de Huelva

    • Autor: 

      Julio Araujo

    • Fecha: 

      10 - febrero - 2016

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Sala de Juntas, EBD-CSIC, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      El proyecto de tesis se enfoca en el estudio de comunidades acuáticas -con énfasis en la ictiofauna- en una región del piedemonte y la llanura de la cuenca amazónica, el río Madre de Dios al sureste de la Amazonía Peruana. El gradiente altitudinal que abarca el área de estudio y la falta de información previa suponen la principal justificación del estudio. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L3W5twkmIWk

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  • Título: Opportunistic pollination by birds and lizards in the Canary Islands (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Candelaria Rodríguez

    • Fecha: 

      25 - febrero - 2016

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABINER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      The reproductive success depend on the animal’s effectiveness and the context in which the mutualism occurs. The present thesis is about the interplay between these two aspects in the mutualism of pollination. We try to meet the challenge with a particular group of pollinators, opportunistic nectar-feeding vertebrates, in a particular context, oceanic islands. Due to their intrinsic ecological conditions, oceanic islands favour the appearance of depauperate and disharmonic assemblages of opportunistic pollinators, whose effectiveness and level of context dependence may differ significantly from those of continental systems. In the concrete case of the Canary Islands, passerine birds and lacertid lizards are frequent floral visitors of native flora, but their pollination ecology has remained almost unknown. For this reason, the present thesis follows a dual objective: first to experimentally demonstrate the effectiveness of birds and lizards as pollinators and analyse the potential differences between both functional groups, to then understand how their benefits on plant fitness vary under the presence of antagonists. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hwvbq4GZ6Ig

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  • Título: Are arctic-breeding waders getting the squeeze? Studies on habitat selection of New World waders (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      Department of Biology, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada

    • Autor: 

      Erica Nol

    • Fecha: 

      17 - febrero - 2016

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Climate warming in the higher (arctic and sub-arctic) latitudes is causing encroachment of shrubs into previously open habitats. It is also causing the expansion of the range of common avian nest predators, and of course, longer ice-free seasons. How are arctic-breeding waders coping? This talk examines several studies that have explored the impacts of these potential factors on the densities and demography of arctic-breeding waders in northern Canada. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9e22ua9dPeI

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  • Título: Effects of host heterogeneity on vector attraction: disproportionate blood-feeding dominates the transmission of Plasmodium and West Nile virus
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Jiayue Yan

    • Fecha: 

      28 - abril - 2016

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Epidemiological models for the transmission of infectious diseases used to assume that different hosts are equally appealing to their vectors, that vectors and hosts interact randomly and tended to ignore the impact of host-trait heterogeneity on disease transmission. However, recent studies have shown that mosquitoes feed disproportionately on some host species in relation to what may be expected from their relative abundance. This phenomenon may dramatically alter the host-pathogen contact rate and thus the transmission dynamics of infectious diseases. My thesis will focus on identifying the impact of host morphology, infection status and condition of the attractiveness for blood-seeking mosquitoes. First, we will review what sort of traits may serve as searching cues for host-seeking mosquitoes. Second, we will investigate the relationship between different bird traits (e.g. morphology, metabolism, infection status,) and mosquito attraction at intra- and interspecific levels. Finally, how the competence of different bird species as host of West Nile virus is related to taxonomy and immune system characteristics. By far, we have achieved some preliminary results but your suggestions will be highly welcome for our upcoming works.

  • Título: Olfactory clues related to mosquito attraction (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Alazne Díez

    • Fecha: 

      28 - abril - 2016

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:30

    • Resumen: 

      Vector-borne pathogens play an important role in the regulation of wild populations and are model systems for ecological and evolutionary studies. The evolution of these systems is the result of triangular affairs between the parasite, the vector (mosquito) and the vertebrate host. Vectors present important interspecific and interpopulation differences in their feeding behaviour and consequently, interact with their pathogens with different frequencies. As model systems, we will use two multi-host/multi-vector pathogens (Plasmodium and West Nile virus), both transmitted by mosquitoes, and Turdus merula and Passer domesticus like a host. In particular, we will analyse how different host individual characteristics may affect vector attraction and how the heterogeneity on host attractiveness may affect the transmission dynamics of pathogens. We will focus special attention of odorant bird, the feeding behaviour of mosquitoes (mammals vs birds) and the influence of the parasite in the vector and host behaviour. This information may increase our understanding on the dynamics of transmission of numerous vector borne diseases, including pathogens potentially dangerous for humans and wildlife. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vsl9A0UuGEQ

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  • Título: Understanding the mechanisms underlying effective crop pollination services (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      School of Environmental and Rural Science University of New England

    • Autor: 

      Romina Rader

    • Fecha: 

      12 - mayo - 2016

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Worldwide, insect pollinators significantly contribute to biodiversity and the provision of ecosystem services within agricultural systems. While it is clear that the yield and quality of global food crops benefit to varying degrees from animal pollination, we still know little about the specific mechanisms by which different pollinators impact production. In this presentation, I will discuss some of the current work we are doing in this field, new developments in methods and how these can help us better understand the interactions between crops and crop pollinators. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qq0H_8Rsa3A

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  • Título: Aspectos prácticos del procedimiento de trabajo de la unidad de protección de resultados y promoción de EBTS (UPR_EBTS) en la gestión de la propiedad industrial e intelectual del CSIC
    • Centro: 

      CSIC

    • Autor: 

      Javier Etxabe Oria; Juan Martínez Armesto; Pancho Sueiro Blanco

    • Fecha: 

      14 - junio - 2016

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana, Sala de Juntas, 11:00

    • Resumen: 

      En primer lugar se tratarán cuestiones relacionadas con la misión, estructura y funciones de la VATC, con especial atención a la Unidad de Protección de Resultados y Promoción de EBTs. A continuación, se comentarán aspectos prácticos del procedimiento de trabajo de la UPR_EBTs relativos a: - la evaluación de resultados de investigación en el sector medio ambiental, y su protección a través de las distintas figuras que reconoce el derecho, fundamentalmente, patentes, modelos de utilidad, secreto industrial y propiedad intelectual; - las Empresas de Base Técnológica (EBTs), poniendo el foco en cuales son los requisitos fijados por el CSIC y cómo se gestionan, desde nuestra institución, este tipo de iniciativas empresariales surgidas en su seno.

  • Título: Quantifying exposure of bees to pesticides (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Cristina Botías Talamantes

    • Fecha: 

      09 - junio - 2016

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Cabimer, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      In recent years, an intense debate has been generated about the environmental risks posed by neonicotinoids, a group of widely-used, neurotoxic insecticides. When these systemic compounds are applied to seeds low concentrations are subsequently found in the nectar and pollen of the crop and so they can be consumed by bees. A key point of controversy is whether bees consume enough of these compounds during the flowering period of the crop to do them significant harm. Thus, there is a need to understand the routes of exposure for bees and the levels present in the pollen and nectar of the flowers they visit. In this seminar I will show the concentrations of neonicotinoid insecticides that bees are exposed to when they forage in agricultural landscapes, and I will comment on the work in progress where I am assessing the effect of field-realistic levels of pesticides on bumblebee colonies. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dIxYn7_nGsQ

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  • Título: Complex admixture revealed by genomic data from modern and historical European bison (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      Mammal Research Institute Polish Academy of Sciences, Bia?owie?a, Poland

    • Autor: 

      Karolina Wecek

    • Fecha: 

      17 - noviembre - 2016

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Retracing complex population processes that precede extreme bottlenecks may be impossible using data from living individuals. The wisent (Bison bonasus), Europe’s largest terrestrial mammal, exemplifies such a population history, having gone extinct in the wild but subsequently restored by captive breeding efforts. Using low coverage genomic data from modern and historical individuals, we investigate population processes occurring before and after this extinction. Analysis of aligned genomes supports the division of wisent into two previously recognised subspecies, but almost half of the genomic alignment contradicts this population history as a result of incomplete lineage sorting and admixture. Admixture between subspecies populations occurred prior to extinction and subsequently during the captive breeding program. Admixture with the Bos cattle lineage is also widespread but results from ancient events rather than recent hybridisation with domestics. Our study demonstrates the huge potential of historical genomes for both studying evolutionary histories and for guiding conservation strategies. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iCnCdFkdFRs

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  • Título: Regularity in the traits of individuals outcompetes other biodiversity metrics in explaining ecosystem properties (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      Department of Aquatic Ecology. Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Water Science and Technology

    • Autor: 

      Simone Fontana

    • Fecha: 

      23 - junio - 2016

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Sala de Juntas EBD-CSIC, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Biodiversity affects ecosystem properties through changes in the trait composition and variation of natural communities. Using phytoplankton data obtained across 28 lakes we found that trait evenness - the regularity in distribution of morpho-physiological traits of individual organisms - was the strongest predictor of community resource use and biomass yield. Our results suggest that elucidating the mechanisms linking individual-level trait variation to community dynamics could improve our ability to forecast changes in ecosystem properties across environmental gradients. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Xchlb_DxLw

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  • Título: Optimizing ecosystem services and its limitations (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      Netherlands Institute of Ecology,NIOO-KNAW

    • Autor: 

      Stijn van Gils

    • Fecha: 

      10 - noviembre - 2016

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Ecosystem services, such as pollination and pest control, largely underpin the production in arable agriculture. Treatments to enhance one ecosystem service, however, may influence the effect of other ecosystem services and knowledge about these interaction effects can be used to optimize ecosystem services to enhance agricultural production. Over the last few years various experiments have been performed to test how ecosystem services can be optimized. In my presentation I will present some of my own work on the optimization of ecosystem services, as well as the limitations to this kind of studies. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EFN6q0z_WUc

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  • Título: Environmental variation and the evolution of large brains in birds (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      CREAF

    • Autor: 

      Ferran Sayol

    • Fecha: 

      24 - noviembre - 2016

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Environmental variability has long been postulated as a major selective force in the evolution of large brains. To test this hypothesis, we assembled information of brain size for over 1,200 bird species and used remote-sensing analyses to estimate temporal variation in plant productivity. As expected, larger brains (relative to body size) are more likely to occur in species exposed to larger environmental variation throughout their geographic range. Reconstructions of evolutionary trajectories are consistent with the hypothesis that larger brains (relative to body size) have evolved when the species invaded more seasonal regions, although the alternative - that the species already possessed larger brains when invaded more seasonal regions - cannot be ruled out. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vLnApfgpuak

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  • Título: Estrategia trófica de un carroñero estricto y su respuesta espacial a los cambios en binomio ungulados silvestres/domésticos del bioma mediterráneo (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Eneko Arrondo

    • Fecha: 

      01 - diciembre - 2016

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Los buitres atraviesan desde hace varias décadas una crisis de conservación global. Pese a que en este tiempo el conocimiento sobre este grupo ha crecido exponencialmente, existe todavía un gran desconocimiento sobre algunas facetas de su ecología. Entre ellas destaca el uso del espacio, pues al ser especies con gran capacidad de desplazamiento, su seguimiento es técnicamente complicado. En este marco, nuestro objetivo es profundizar en la ecología espacial del buitre leonado en relación a las variaciones que el cambio global origina en la disponibilidad y accesibilidad de recursos tróficos de origen doméstico y silvestre. Esta especie es un inigualable modelo de estudio dentro de los carroñeros estrictos pues es el más abundante a nivel europeo (albergando España el 90% de los efectivos del continente) y por lo tanto, el principal proveedor de servicios ecosistemicos. El eje conductor de nuestra investigación es el seguimiento GPS de 60 individuos adultos de buitre leonado procedente de dos colonias situadas en los extremos norte y sur de la Península Ibérica. Primeramente, evaluaremos espacial y cuantitativamente el uso actual que la especie hace de sus principales recursos (ungulados silvestres, ungulados domésticos en extensivo y ungulados domésticos en intensivo). En segundo lugar, analizaremos cuales son los motivos tróficos que llevan a la especie a seleccionar preferencialmente el hábitat de forrajeo. A continuación, abordaremos el papel que juegan las políticas sanitarias y agro-ganaderas a la hora de distribuir el recurso trófico y como ello condiciona el movimiento del buitre leonado. Finalmente añadiremos una perspectiva a nivel de comunidad analizando como carroñas provenientes de usos humanos alternativos (ganado y caza mayor) son explotadas por un mismo gremio de carroñeros. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GZB6EuAlmfc

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  • Título: Spatial ecology and behaviour of Canarian Egyptian vultures (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Marina García

    • Fecha: 

      01 - diciembre - 2016

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:30

    • Resumen: 

      Vultures are a group of globally threatened birds deserving increasing attention in conservation. However, as happens with other long-lived birds with deferred maturity, their ecology during the pre-breeding stage is a major knowledge gap largely precluding the application of evidence-based management. The aim of our research is to deepen into the spatial and movement ecology of the endemic Canarian Egyptian vulture during the pre-breeding stage in relation to the availability and predictability of resources and environmental constraints. We take advantage of a long-term monitoring program of this population (18 years) which has resulted in 90% of the population individually identified. Moreover, 48 individuals are currently marked with GPS devices which have provided more than 19 million of fixes. We will deepen into the between-individual foraging strategies in relation to human-related feeding resources varying in spatial-temporal predictability (farms and vulture restaurants). Then, we will examine which factors determine the asymmetric use of livestock exploitations by individual birds. The next step will be to identify those factors influencing local farmers' perception about ecosystem services provided by the vultures. In addition, we also aim to determine the factors influencing variability between individuals in the use of roosting resources (power lines). Finally, we will develop sensitivity maps in relation to existing and planned wind farms in an attempt to reconcile vulture conservation and wind energy development. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JjnB4AAxFwQ

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  • Título: Ecology of a small mammal community along an altitudinal gradient (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Mar Comas

    • Fecha: 

      15 - diciembre - 2016

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:30

    • Resumen: 

      Altitudinal gradients imply a variation in several environmental variables (as temperature and moisture) generating a spatial variation in the selective pressures and allowing for the study of different ecological and evolutionary processes. In this PhD thesis, I will study the ecology and evolution of treeshrews (Tupaia montana) along an altitudinal gradient in Kinabalu park (Sabah, Malaysia), from different approaches. I will study the trophic ecology of the tree shrews (genus Tupaia) by means stable isotopes, their parasites and their immune system (Class I and II genes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex). We will also study the relationship between parasites and immune system. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YOjB8tIQk3Y

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  • Título: Biology and Conservation of the Andalusian Buttonquail (Turnix sylvaticus sylvaticus) (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Carlos Gutiérrez-Expósito

    • Fecha: 

      12 - enero - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Sala de Juntas EBD-CSIC, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      The buttonquail family (Turnicidae) is one of the least studied bird groups of the world. Among them, the nominate subspecies of the Small Buttonquail (Turnix sylvaticus), widely known as Andalusian Buttonquail, formerly occurred along the western Mediterranean countries in both European (Italy, Spain & Portugal) and African (from Libya to Morocco) shores. Starting from a global review of the knowledge status of the whole family, we will focus on the recent history and status of this critically endangered taxon. Based on museum specimen data and historic literature we will reconstruct the former distribution area and then study the long-term changes in land use and the environmental drivers that can explain the large decline of the species along the XX century. Then an assessment of the demography status and habitat selection of the last remnant population that still exist in Morocco will be done as well as a description on the breeding biology and the natural history if this population. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kRXFThLoKCY

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  • Título: ¿Determinan las comunidades nativas el éxito e impacto de las invasiones biológicas? (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Sara Castro

    • Fecha: 

      12 - enero - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Sala de Juntas EBD-CSIC, 13:30

    • Resumen: 

      El estudio de las es de vital importancia ya que representan uno de los procesos más importantes de cambio global y pérdida de biodiversidad. Son dos los factores determinan la invasión de una nueva área: las características de la especie que invade, que determinan su potencial para invadir; y las características del ecosistema nativo, que determinan su susceptibilidad a ser invadido (“invasibilidad") y su vulnerabilidad a los impactos potenciales. Mi tesis se centra en este segundo factor, evaluando el efecto de las comunidades nativas en el éxito e impacto a una invasora mundial, la hormiga argentina (Linepithema humile), y la importancia relativa de uno de los principales mecanismos que modulan estos efectos: la resistencia biótica. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lgTnfbp2fjM

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  • Título: Ciclos en el estudio de la biodiversidad: El samsara del herpetólogo (Resumen/Summary)
    • Centro: 

      Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, Brasil

    • Autor: 

      Santiago Castroviejo-Fisher

    • Fecha: 

      13 - enero - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Sala de Juntas, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Estudiar la diversidad de la vida es un desafío intelectual de primer orden, cuyos resultados tienen importantes implicaciones para la humanidad. Sin embargo, a día de hoy, incluso las unidades comparativas básicas en el estudio de la biodiversidad están poco o nada estudiadas. En este seminario, se expondrán los esfuerzos de un grupo de biólogos en el estudio de la biodiversidad animal. Usando radiaciones evolutivas de anfibios, como por ejemplo las ranas de cristal, en la región mas biodiversa del planeta—la cuenca amazónica—el Dr. Castroviejo-Fisher explicará desde como se organizan expediciones científicas a algunas de las regiones mas remotas del planeta para la colecta de datos, hasta como se testan explicaciones causales sobre el origen y distribución de la diversidad observada. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aaistior4vM

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  • Título: Avian movement ecology: interdisciplinary research and public engagement
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Judy Shamoun-Baranes

    • Fecha: 

      23 - enero - 2017

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Sala de Juntas EBD-CSIC, 11:00

    • Resumen: 

      During flight birds must move efficiently through an environment which is constantly changing, an environment which is also in motion. Radar networks and global tracking systems have created fantastic opportunities to study bird movement 24/7, over land and sea and across continents. By integrating measurements, models and expertise across a range of disciplines we study how birds respond to their environment and explore potential short and long term consequences of their flight behaviour. I show examples or how our knowledge is applied to reduce human-wildlife conflicts, to engage the public and foster fascination for science and the natural world around us.

  • Título: Influencia de la urbanización del hábitat en los perfiles fenotípicos de una especie de ave: morfología, fisiología y comportamiento (resumen/summary)
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Antonio Palma

    • Fecha: 

      20 - octubre - 2016

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Los seres vivos se ven sometidos a diferentes presiones selectivas a lo largo de su vida. Estas presiones pueden ser de muy diversa naturaleza y pueden afectar a diferentes aspectos de los individuos. El presente proyecto estudiará en una especie de ave (lechucita de las vizcacheras; Athene cunicularia) la presión selectiva generada por un proceso de modificación (urbanización) del hábitat y su efecto sobre diferentes rasgos del fenotipo que englobarían: (1) caracteres fisiológicos, como la capacidad individual para afrontar el estrés oxidativo, (2) caracteres morfológicos, como el nivel de melanización del plumaje, y (3) caracteres de comportamiento, como la distancia de huida frente a depredadores. El objetivo será describir fenotipos locales en poblaciones en simpatría de medios rurales y urbanos. Se profundizará en el efecto del proceso de adaptación al medio urbano sobre las interacciones que se establecen entre variables de estrés oxidativo, personalidad y coloración de dichos individuos. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=249boOSbwro

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  • Título: Epigenetic cross-talk between the human malaria parasite and its mosquito vector (resumen/summary)
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Elena Gómez-Díaz

    • Fecha: 

      06 - octubre - 2016

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Host-parasite interactions are amongst the most plastic systems in nature. Epigenetic processes regulate transcription and provide means for rapid responses to the environment that can be heritable. To test the idea that epigenetic mechanisms regulate host-parasite adaptive phenotypic responses in the course of an infection, in this project I used a natural system involving the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and its natural mosquito vector Anopheles gambiae. My investigations combine genome-wide analysis of trancription by RNA-seq, the analysis of histone modifications by ChIP-seq, as well as the study of chromatin structure by ATAC-seq, at different time stages during parasite life-cycle in the mosquito. In this talk I will focus first on the results on the parasite, which show that in the course of a malaria infection P.falciparum undergoes a number of alterations in patterns of gene expression, which depend in turn on reciprocal modifications to the structure and organization of the chromatin. Importantly, these changes impact genes linked to malaria pathogenesis. I will then move to present results on the mosquito vector. In this case, the comparison of histone modification and gene expression profiles between infected and uninfected mosquitoes allowed us to identify malaria responsive epigenes as those mosquito genes showing correlated changes in mRNA and histone mark levels in response to infection. In addition, the analysis of small non-coding RNAs identified a set of mosquito miRNAs whose abundance is altered in response to infection and potentially target multiple immune genes. These findings are not only relevant at the fundamental level for the fields of Plasmodium and mosquito biology, but have important practical implications for the design of new strategies to fight malaria. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L3VXdqSNDJg

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  • Título: proceso de urbanización y su efecto en la dispersión: el caso de la lechucita de las vizcacheras (resumen/summary)
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Álvaro Luna

    • Fecha: 

      20 - octubre - 2016

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:30

    • Resumen: 

      La urbanización del medio es una de las formas de transformación del hábitat más profundas, constituyendo un desafío conservacionista. No obstante, cada vez se tienen más en cuenta estos espacios humanizados como un escenario evolutivo único para estudiar aspectos como la adaptación a nuevos medios y la especiación ecológica. Nuestro objetivo fundamental es ahondar en los factores ambientales e individuales que afectan a las distintas estrategias dispersivas de nuestra especie de estudio en un contexto urbano y rural. Partimos de la premisa cada vez más estudiada de que los individuos deciden dónde asentarse para reproducirse y qué distancias recorrer antes de hacerlo, influenciados para ello por factores relacionados con su fenotipo (comportamiento, morfología y fisiología) y genotipo, así como con los condicionantes ambientales que operan en las áreas natales y de asentamiento. VIDEO https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4_tcmIeayS4

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  • Título: Modelling the biomass of Doñana's marsh vegetation using land surface phenology (resumen/summary)
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      María Lumbierres

    • Fecha: 

      27 - octubre - 2016

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Doñana marsh is one of the most important wetlands in Europe; however, it is under extreme human pressure. Remote sensing techniques have proved to be an effective method for modeling and monitoring biomass. The main objective of this project was to model the Doñana marsh biomass, to study the vegetation dynamics of the last 15 years and at the same time to predict the biomass in the future. This project consisted in four different steps: first, to mode the phenological curve, second, to calibrate the metrics of the phenological curve with the biomass production, third, to validate the model, and fourth, to map the biomass and analyze the main patterns of distribution and production. The results showed that it was possible to model the biomass production on the marsh using the NDVI; however it was clear that the high variability of the marsh made the process of modelling challenging. This variability is the result of a highly dynamic ecosystem that interplays water, soil, vegetation, and the presence of cattle. We hope this research can be a starting point to a more deeply research into the Doñana marsh biomass and be a tool for scientifically based management of the cattle in the marsh. VIDEO: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ab17xKtmce4

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  • Título: Using beta diversity to discern deterministic and stochastic drivers of biodiversity
    • Centro: 

      Departamento de Zoología, Facultad de Biología Universidad de Santiago de Compostela

    • Autor: 

      Andrés Baselga

    • Fecha: 

      13 - julio - 2016

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Sala de Juntas, EBD-CSIC, 11:00

    • Resumen: 

      New methods to assess the variation in species composition among biological assemblages (i.e. beta diversity) provide novel avenues to investigate the drivers of biodiversity. Further insights can be gained from integrating the evolutionary layer in macroecological analyses, using molecular phylogenies in combination with novel methods to quantify dissimilarity among assemblages.

  • Título: Drones sobre Doñana
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      David Aragonés

    • Fecha: 

      16 - junio - 2016

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Sala de Juntas, 11:00

    • Resumen: 

      "Drones sobre Doñana" es un vídeo de 5 minutos de duración sobre el uso de los drones que llevan a cabo nuestros compañeros del LAST en colaboración con el equipo de seguimiento, en la colonia de gaviotas picofinas de Veta la Palma. Después del video, David Aragonés nos hablará de las posibilidades de los dos modelos de drones con los que actualmente trabajan.

  • Título: Efectos ecológicos de la introducción de abejorros en los cultivos de fresa
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Alejandro Trillo

    • Fecha: 

      09 - diciembre - 2014

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Salón de Actos CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      : La pérdida, fragmentación y aislamiento de los hábitats conducen a la disminución tanto de la diversidad de especies concretas como de sus funciones ecológicas, tal es el caso de la pérdida de polinizadores. Los polinizadores son fundamentales por los servicios ambientales que ofrecen, tanto para el mantenimiento de poblaciones vegetales como para la producción de frutos y semillas de consumo humano. La provincia es una de las mayores productoras de fresa mundial. Para mejorar el rendimiento de los cultivos, los agricultores colocan nidos comerciales de abejorros. En esta tesis queremos desenmarañar las posibles consecuencias ecológicas que podría tener dicho vertido de polinizadores. Por tanto, evaluaremos la abundancia de abejorros nativos y manejados en un gradiente de alteración del paisaje. Estudiaremos si la presencia de especies manejadas y la alteración del paisaje afecta a la carga de parásitos que portan los abejorros. Evaluaremos el vertido bidireccional de abejorros entre cultivos y hábitat semi-natural. Y por último, analizaremos como de eficaces son los polinizadores manejados y nativos en la producción de fresa.

  • Título: Using genetic variation to conserve natural populations: Allozymes to genomes
    • Centro: 

      University of Montana

    • Autor: 

      Fred Allendorf

    • Fecha: 

      10 - mayo - 2016

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana, Sala de Juntas, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Fred Allendorf is one of the founders of the modern Conservation Genetics and his text books on conservation and population genetics are a reference worldwide. He is now very involved in promoting the use of genomics in conservation. Fred is visiting us after being the a plenary speaker in the European Science Foundation congress ConGenOmics in Porto last week.

  • Título: A phylogenetic approach to explain amphibian endemism in the East African coastal forests
    • Centro: 

      Biogeography Group, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Basel, Switzerland

    • Autor: 

      Christopher Barratt

    • Fecha: 

      21 - abril - 2016

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Cabimer, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      The Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa (CFEA) are a global biodiversity hotspot, consisting of a complex landscape of savannah and fragmented forest patches heavily influenced by late Pleistocene climate cycles and sea level changes. Although most habitats have contracted and expanded with the changing conditions, it has been predicted that some remained constant since the last interglacial period (120kya) allowing the persistence of lineages that became locally extinct in the surrounding landscape. To date, explanations of diversity and endemism in the CFEA have been based on knowledge of taxonomically recognised species ranges, failing to include phylogenetic information. We address these shortcomings by investigating endemism across the whole amphibian assemblage (species level and below), integrating spatial and newly generated phylogenetic data from across the coastal forests in Tanzania and Kenya. Our results show that endemism is concentrated in five major areas; three areas of coastal dry forest and two areas of transitional rainforest on the lower slopes of the nearby Eastern Afromontane region. These areas correspond to predicted habitat stability, likely playing a major role in the maintenence of biodiversity in this region, and should be considered as important evolutionary refugia.

  • Título: A juicy topic: the effect of fruit traits on palm diversification
    • Centro: 

      Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics (IBED), University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Lab. Écologie, Systématique, Évolution (ESE), Université Paris-Sud, Orsay, France

    • Autor: 

      Renske Onstein

    • Fecha: 

      21 - abril - 2016

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Cabimer, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Fleshy-fruited plant species depend on frugivores for seed-dispersal – a widespread mutualism in tropical rainforests. The availability and ecology of frugivores therefore affects the evolution of fruit traits – e.g. large fruits may only be eaten and dispersed by large-bodied frugivores. However, little is known about how interaction-relevant fruit traits, such as fruit size, have influenced diversification rates on macro-evolutionary time-scales. Here, we address this question in the globally-distributed palm family (Arecaceae, >2600 species), using an all-evidence phylogeny (~95% of all palm species), fruit size data (~80% of the species) and Bayesian statistics to infer diversification dynamics. Our results suggest that large-fruited palm lineages (fruits > 4 cm, presumably dispersed by frugivorous megafauna) have lower speciation rates than lineages with small fruits, possibly due to increased gene-flow among palm populations and/or longer generation times. Furthermore, we detect a distinct increase in the extinction rate of large-fruited lineages from 0.5-2.6 Mya till the present, as well as a increase in transition rates from large to small fruits during this time period (compared to palm diversification prior to 2.6 Mya). These results suggest that the extinction of megafauna in the Quaternary may have left its signature on the diversification of palm lineages worldwide.

  • Título: Conservation genomics: Characterization and management of genetic load in the Iberian lynx
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Daniel Kleinman Ruiz

    • Fecha: 

      10 - marzo - 2016

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Declining species lose fitness through the accumulation of genetic load and its increased exposure due to inbreeding. This basic principle of the conservation genetics paradigm is well accepted, yet the underlying mechanisms haven’t been fully disentangled, mostly because studies of adaptive variation in declining populations have been limited. In this thesis, we will take advantage of the wide array of genomic resources generated by the recently completed Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) genome project, in order to directly assess functional variation in the populations of this highly endangered species. We’ll be focusing on the evaluation of selection against deleterious traits (purifying selection), whose efficiency, theory predicts, is weakened in smaller populations. We will use genome-wide patterns of non-synonymous –potentially deleterious– polymorphisms and substitutions to assess the interaction of purifying selection with locally heterogeneous processes like recombination and mutation. The genomic scan for major effect mutations could reveal the genetic basis of inbreeding depression, including those deleterious traits already identified in the captive population (e.g. juvenile epilepsy, cryptorchidism). Finally, we will try to improve current genetic management by fine-tuning the genomic tools at our disposal, including the selection of an extensively curated set of SNP markers and, eventually, by including selection against deleterious alleles in the conservation programme.

  • Título: Lynx evolutionary genomics: An evaluation of functional variation and the role of balancing selection in declining populations
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      María Lucena Pérez

    • Fecha: 

      10 - marzo - 2016

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Declining and isolated populations lose genetic diversity due to genetic drift, what could cause a reduction of fitness and adaptive potential. Balancing selection, recombination and mutation opposes the action of genetic drift by generating or maintaining diversity in functional areas of the genome. The concurrent action between these forces and genetic drift may vary in different demographic scenarios and result in distinct diversity patterns across the genome. We aim to study these coexisting processes in Lynx lynx and Lynx pardinus populations with different demographic histories. In addition to contemporary patterns, we will assess diachronic changes in Iberian lynx genome using ancient and historical samples. To do so, we will use high throughput sequencing data. We will also take advantage of the newly annotated Iberian lynx genome and recently developed analysis methods, such as genomic scans.

  • Título: The life and times of Charadrius semipalmatus: A quarter century of research
    • Centro: 

      Department of Biology, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario, Canada

    • Autor: 

      Erica Nol

    • Fecha: 

      26 - febrero - 2016

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Sala de Juntas EBD-CSIC, 12:00

    • Resumen: 

      What can we learn from long-term studies of a single-species of bird? Often what drives the earlier questions will not drive the later ones and often, unexpected problems will direct the questions that are posed. Short-term studies of Semipalmated Plovers (Charadrius semipalmatus) within the context of a longer-term research program provide detailed information about the biology and conservation of this widely distributed North American plover. I will present some of the findings from the work conducted by myself and my graduate students, from the last 25+ years of study. The work encompasses studies conducted both on the breeding grounds in northern Canada and at several wintering sites.

  • Título: Understanding Animal Camouflage - Lessons from Birds and Crabs
    • Centro: 

      University of Exeter

    • Autor: 

      Martin Stevens

    • Fecha: 

      26 - junio - 2014

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      13

    • Resumen: 

      Camouflage is one of the most widespread anti-predator defences in nature, and a textbook example of natural selection. In recent years there has been a substantial increase in the amount of work testing camouflage theory, focusing on the types of camouflage that exist and how they may work to defeat predator vision. However, despite substantial progress, most work has been done in artificial systems or with theoretical models, rather than with real animals in complex natural habitats. Here, I will discuss recent work we have done to test camouflage theory in two main systems: several species of ground nesting birds in Africa (mostly plovers and nightjars) and highly polymorphic shore crabs in the UK. I will describe work we have done to test the different types of camouflage that exist in these species and across different habitats, and how the level of individual camouflage affects the probability of predation over time. Next, I will discuss some of the mechanisms that individuals can use to improve camouflage, including behavioural choice of backgrounds and colour change. I will finish by outlining where these and other projects can go next to understand the evolution of camouflage and individual variation.

  • Título: Diversity and funcional morphology of exocrine glands in social insects
    • Centro: 

      University of Leuven

    • Autor: 

      Johan Billen

    • Fecha: 

      23 - junio - 2014

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      13

    • Resumen: 

      Bees, wasps, ants and termites are fascinating because of their well organized societies. Among the characteristics of social insects is the occurrence of a great diversity of exocrine glands. The high number of these glands goes along with the various functions their products play. To date, this variety amounts to more than 130 different glands that can be distinguished among the various social insect groups, with ants the most diverse group with 91 known glands. The glands can be classified in five main groups according to their anatomical organization. This talk brings a survey of the structural and functional diversity of exocrine glands in social insects, using selected examples that represent the main gland types. These examples at the same time also illustrate the big variety of functions the glandular secretions can play. A very well known function is that of producing the various pheromonal substances, that play a role in the communicative interactions between nestmates (such as alarm, trail, recruitment, sex pheromones…). Other known functions of exocrine gland secretions deal with reproduction and caste determination, or with the elaboration of antibiotic substances, digestive enzymes and saliva, nest material and lubricants.

  • Título: Mechanisms of Adaptation to a Changing World
    • Centro: 

      Universidad Pablo de Olavide

    • Autor: 

      Adrián Baños

    • Fecha: 

      03 - julio - 2014

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      13

    • Resumen: 

      How organisms adapt to their environment is becoming increasingly relevant in our changing world. The overall aim of my PhD is to test for the existence and importance of two neglected mechanisms of adaptation to new habitats. I. Selective pre-establishment filters during biological invasion Before an invasive species can become established in a non-native range, individuals of this species will have to successfully pass the stages of uptake, transport, and introduction. There is some evidence for a species bias in invasion success. However, in general what exactly happens during the pre-establishment stages is hardly studied. Moreover, it is likely that during these stages there is also selection on certain traits at the individual level. This pre-establishment selection could change the composition of introduced populations, and with this their invasion potential. We will test this novel hypothesis by following the fate of a set of individuals from their capture in the native range (Senegal) through transport and until their simulated release in a non-native range (Spain), characterising various traits thought to be important for invasion success (condition, parasite load, stress resistance, immune system genotype, behaviour/personality, morphology). II. Matching Habitat Choice If individuals vary in which habitat yields best performance and highest fitness, it would benefit them to settle in those habitats that best match their phenotypes. Such Matching Habitat Choice (MHC) will lead to the clumping of similar individuals, and to the adaptation of local populations. Here we aim to assess the presence, functioning, relative importance and consequences of Matching Habitat Choice for adaptation to different and novel environments. We will experimentally compare the speed and efficiency of natural selection, phenotypic plasticity and MHC to drive local adaptation, and also assess the consequences of MHC for assortative mating and the ability to invade novel environments.

  • Título: Interacción entre polinizadores y la planta exótica Hedysarum coronarium a distintas escalas espaciales
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Ana Montero

    • Fecha: 

      11 - septiembre - 2014

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      13

    • Resumen: 

      no disponible

  • Título: Mechanisms and genetic basis of polyandry and sexual conflict adaptations. Insights from experimental evolution of spatially structured populations
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Eduardo Rodríguez

    • Fecha: 

      02 - octubre - 2014

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      13

    • Resumen: 

      La selección sexual favorece la evolución de numerosos caracteres implicados en la reproducción, es responsable de complejas interacciones coevolutivas entre los sexos, y juega un papel importante en especiación . La poliandria (cuando las hembras se aparean con más de un macho dentro de un mismo periodo reproductivo) tiene implicaciones evolutivas de gran calibre puesto que posibilita que la selección sexual continúe después del apareamiento por medio de mecanismos de selección postcópula (los cuales determinan el éxito reproductivo) y facilita interacciones entre los sexos que tienen consecuencias importantes como son aquellas basadas en la obtención de beneficios genéticos por parte de las hembras o aquellas que resultan en conflicto sexual. Consecuentemente, la comprensión del significado adaptativo de la poliandria suscita gran interés entre los biólogos evolutivos. Sin embargo las preguntas en relación al cómo y por qué este comportamiento se ha originado y se mantiene desde un punto de vista evolutivo siguen sin una respuesta clara. La presente tesis tiene como objetivo avanzar en el conocimiento de los mecanismos que posibilitan el mantenimiento de la poliandria en las poblaciones naturales, determinar si existe varianza genética en las tasas de apareamiento y analizar los niveles de dicha varianza y profundizar en la relación existente entre el comportamiento poliándrico y las dinámicas de conflicto entre los individuos de ambos sexos en relación a las tasas de apareamiento. Para ello se usará como modelo de estudio el coleóptero Callosobruchus maculatus y herramientas metodológicas robustas como son Evolución Experimental (experimentos de selección) y diseños de genética cuantitativa.

  • Título: Mechanisms and genetic basis of polyandry and sexual conflict adaptations. Insights from experimental evolution of spatially structured populations
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Eduardo Rodríguez

    • Fecha: 

      02 - octubre - 2014

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      13

    • Resumen: 

      La selección sexual favorece la evolución de numerosos caracteres implicados en la reproducción, es responsable de complejas interacciones coevolutivas entre los sexos, y juega un papel importante en especiación . La poliandria (cuando las hembras se aparean con más de un macho dentro de un mismo periodo reproductivo) tiene implicaciones evolutivas de gran calibre puesto que posibilita que la selección sexual continúe después del apareamiento por medio de mecanismos de selección postcópula (los cuales determinan el éxito reproductivo) y facilita interacciones entre los sexos que tienen consecuencias importantes como son aquellas basadas en la obtención de beneficios genéticos por parte de las hembras o aquellas que resultan en conflicto sexual. Consecuentemente, la comprensión del significado adaptativo de la poliandria suscita gran interés entre los biólogos evolutivos. Sin embargo las preguntas en relación al cómo y por qué este comportamiento se ha originado y se mantiene desde un punto de vista evolutivo siguen sin una respuesta clara. La presente tesis tiene como objetivo avanzar en el conocimiento de los mecanismos que posibilitan el mantenimiento de la poliandria en las poblaciones naturales, determinar si existe varianza genética en las tasas de apareamiento y analizar los niveles de dicha varianza y profundizar en la relación existente entre el comportamiento poliándrico y las dinámicas de conflicto entre los individuos de ambos sexos en relación a las tasas de apareamiento. Para ello se usará como modelo de estudio el coleóptero Callosobruchus maculatus y herramientas metodológicas robustas como son Evolución Experimental (experimentos de selección) y diseños de genética cuantitativa.

  • Título: Paternity and parental care revisited
    • Centro: 

      Max Plack Institute for Ornitology

    • Autor: 

      Julia Schroeder

    • Fecha: 

      30 - octubre - 2014

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      13 hrs Sala de Actos CABIMER

    • Resumen: 

      Whether and why male parents should adjust the amount of care they provide to young if the female partner is unfaithful has been discussed for more than two decades. While there is general agreement that such a relationship exists across species, empirical results for within-population effects are ambiguous. The problem partially lies in the difficulty to disentangle between-individual from within-individual processes. We use an exceptionally well-suited dataset on wild house sparrows (Passer domesticus) to revisit this problem. https://sites.google.com/site/evolbehavecol/ http://www.orn.mpg.de/218867/Research-Group-Schroeder http://lundysparrows.blogspot.de/

  • Título: Some raptor research highlights from Scotland - hen harriers and golden eagles
    • Centro: 

      Scottish Natural Heritage

    • Autor: 

      Des Thompson

    • Fecha: 

      08 - octubre - 2014

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      12h CABIMER

    • Resumen: 

      Des will summarise some key work being undertaken on raptor conservation and management in the UK, with a focus on Scotland, and especially work on golden eagles and hen harriers. Des was founder chairman of the Scottish Raptor Monitoring Scheme (which gave rise to Raptors: a field guide for surveys and monitoring (three editions), and was recently elected Chairman of the UN Convention on Migratory Species’ Conservation of Migratory Birds of Prey in Africa and Eurasia Technical Advisory Group. Des manages policy, research and advisory work on biodiversity and climate change, and has led some of Britain’s upland nature conservation work for the government and its agencies. He took his PhD and DSc from the University of Nottingham (publishing his PhD as the textbook Gulls and plovers - the ecology and behaviour of mixed species feeding groups, co-written with the late Chris Barnard). He has specialist interests in upland and bird ecology, and has published more than 200 papers, articles and books, including Ecological Change in the Uplands; Heaths and Moorland – cultural landscapes; Tundra Plovers; Shorebirds; Birds of Prey in a Changing Environment; Mountains of Northern Europe: conservation, management, nature and people; An Illustrated Guide to British Upland Vegetation; Alpine Biodiversity in Europe; and The Changing Nature of Scotland. His latest book, co-edited with John and Hilary Birks, on one of the world’s foremost experts on raptor conservation (Nature’s Conscience: the life and legacy of Derek Ratcliffe) will be published shortly. Des is an Associate Editor of the Journal of Applied Ecology, and Chairman of the Field Studies Council.

  • Título: Floater interference reflects territory quality in the spanish imperial eagle: a test of a density-dependent mechanism
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Virginia Morandini

    • Fecha: 

      23 - octubre - 2014

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      13.00 Sala de Actos del CABIMER

    • Resumen: 

      We report on an 11 yr study of floater interference in a population of Spanish Imperial Eagles Aquila adalberti. We analyzed changes over the years in the productivity of 15 territories to test predictions of two hypotheses of density dependent fecundity in relation to the presence of floaters. According to the "interference" hypothesis, as density increases, the frequency of floater intrusion increases, resulting in a decrease in fecundity. Thus, in a high density population a negative relationship between floater intrusions and productivity of the territory is expected. In contrast, on the "habitat heterogeneity" hypothesis, as density increases a greater proportion of individuals are forced to occupy lower quality habitats and, at least up to a certain level, no relationship between floater intrusions and fecundity is expected. Results showed that floater eagles tend to visit natal populations during certain months which coincide with the beginning of the breeding cycle. Among floater eagles, males made significantly more intrusions per day than females, but females stayed in the natal population for longer each year than males. Floater intrusions and fecundity were highly positively correlated, supporting the "habitat heterogeneity" hypothesis; individuals are apparently able to assess the quality of a territory and, at the frequencies observed, their interference with the breeding pair had no obvious depressing effect on fecundity.

  • Título: Respuesta del ecosistema ante la invasión de la hormiga argentina: efectos en vertebrados
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Paloma Álvarez

    • Fecha: 

      06 - noviembre - 2014

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      13 hr Biblioteca (EBD-CSIC)

    • Resumen: 

      La hormiga argentina es uno de los cinco formícidos incluidos en la lista de 100 de las peores especies invasoras del mundo, por sus graves impactos en invertebrados, tanto por depredación directa o indirectamente a través de la competencia por los recursos o el espacio. Pocos estudios se centran en el efecto de la hormiga argentina en vertebrados. Con esta tesis pretendemos estudiar los impactos en vertebrados, tanto directos por la molestia o agresión, como indirectos debido a la disminución de recursos de depredadores nativos.

  • Título: Análisis del estado de la fauna en una explotación de minería metálica
    • Centro: 

      Fundacion Migres

    • Autor: 

      Esperanza Gil

    • Fecha: 

      06 - noviembre - 2014

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      13 hr Biblioteca (EBD-CSIC)

    • Resumen: 

      En una sociedad totalmente dependiente de los metales, la minería metálica ha alterado el medio natural desde sus inicios hace miles de años. Por ello, en esta tesis se va a evaluar la exposición de la fauna que habita en la zona de influencia de una mina de cobre en activo, analizando distintos biomarcadores, tanto a nivel individual como de población. Si existiera algún efecto, se plantearán medidas para su reducción.

  • Título: Implications from the Social Network and the Pedigree of Horses Living in the Wild in the Netherlands
    • Centro: 

      Blaustein Inst. for Desert Research, Israel

    • Autor: 

      Amos Bouskila

    • Fecha: 

      13 - noviembre - 2014

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      13 hrs CABIMER

    • Resumen: 

      Konik horses (Equus caballus) are maintained in several reserves in the Netherlands for habitat management. While there are a few challenges that accompany this introduction, it can serve as a fascinating laboratory to understand the relations between social structure, pedigree and leadership in movements in a social species. Knowledge of the genetic relations among individuals in a group may shed light on the social relationship within the group. We observed and videotaped behavior and movement of the 27 Konik horses that occupy the Blauwe Kamer reserve. The parents of horses that were born on the reserve were determined through DNA and the pedigree was reconstructed. The social network was analyzed based on positive affiliation and proximity, after aggressive interactions were removed. The comparison of harems composition to the pedigree revealed that the large group, which includes the oldest individuals, supplied young females that eventually formed the smaller harem. We also determined the hierarchical rank of the horses, and I will present insights from the relations between leading, rank, pedigree and role in social network. The leaders during collective movements were not the most dominant individuals, rather, two of the oldest females. Of all the network parameters that were tested with model selection to explain the leading rank of horses during collective moves, weighted degree (the number of connections each individual had with other horses, weighted by the intensity of each connection) provided the best explaining factor. Network parameters were also good indicators for future changes in membership in the different groups. An additional insight provided by the comparison between social interactions and the pedigree was the fact that at least two males attempted to mate with their own daughters, in contrast to the common incest-avoidance behavior in horses. Our results can suggest slight modifications in the management of the horses to reduce the risk of inbreeding

  • Título: Forest plant dynamics and global environmental change
    • Centro: 

      Ghent University

    • Autor: 

      Pieter de Frenne

    • Fecha: 

      20 - noviembre - 2014

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      13h sala de actos del CABIMER

    • Resumen: 

      Human alterations to the environment such as land-use changes, eutrophication and climate change have elevated the rate of species’ extinction to a level on par with historical mass extinction events. In temperate forests, biodiversity is mainly a function of the herbaceous understorey community. Many forest understorey plants, however, are not able to track land-use and climate change due to their limited colonisation capacities. In addition, probably due to the greater structural complexity and pivotal role of light availability in forests, evidence is now increasing that the effects of human alterations to both nutrient cycles and the climate system are often buffered due to shading in forests. I will present our research on the (interactive) effects of climate change, enhanced nitrogen inputs, and light availability on (i) the growth and reproduction of a selection of forest plants, and (ii) the composition and diversity of understorey plant communities in European and eastern North American temperate forests

  • Título: Thermal adaptation and the diversity of thermal ecology in a rainforest ant community
    • Centro: 

      Universidad de Oklahoma

    • Autor: 

      Mike Kaspari

    • Fecha: 

      27 - noviembre - 2014

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      13 h sala de actos del CABIMER

    • Resumen: 

      The Thermal Adaptation hypothesis posits that the warmer, less seasonal tropics generates populations with higher and narrower thermal limits. It has largely been tested among populations across latitudes. However, considerable thermal heterogeneity exists within ecosystems: across 31 tropical trees in a Panama rainforest, surfaces exposed to sun were 8 °C warmer and varied more in temperature than surfaces in the litter below. Tiny ectotherms are confined to surfaces and are variously submerged in these superheated boundary layer environments. We quantified the thermal performance curves of 88 ant species from this forest that ranged in average mass from 0.01 to 57 mg. This rainforest’s thermal environments generate a range of thermal maxima subsuming 74% of those previously recorded for ant populations worldwide. Canopy ants, living in a hotter, more variable thermal environment had higher thermal tolerances, but traded this durability with lower peak velocity than litter ants. The Thermal Adaptation hypothesis can be a powerful tool in predicting diversity of thermal limits within communities. Boundary layer environments are likely key to predicting the future of Earth’s tiny terrestrial ectotherm populations

  • Título: A mouse tale of sex, sperm and evolution
    • Centro: 

      University of Western Australia

    • Autor: 

      Renee Claire Firman

    • Fecha: 

      04 - diciembre - 2014

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      13:00 Salón de Actos del Cabimer

    • Resumen: 

      My research interests lie within the broad field of Behavioural Ecology, and more specifically to the area of mammalian sexual selection. At the beginning of my career I utilized the powerful technique of experimental evolution to explore the evolutionary implications of postcopulatory sexual selection in mice. I established and maintained selection lines of mice, and forced them to breed under different selection regimes to create laboratory populations that were evolving either with (polygamy) or without (monogamy) the influence of the postcopulatory selective force of sperm competition. I observed divergence in sperm competition traits between males from the different populations after only a few generations of selection. As predicted, males evolving with sperm competition had improved fertility compared to males that had evolved in the absence of sperm competition. At the same time, I sampled island populations of mice, quantified the level of sperm competition and male fertility within these populations, and found similar results to what I had observed within the laboratory. Most recently, my research has focused on interactions between the gametes and the implications of such interactions for sexual selection, sexual conflict and speciation. In particular, I took advantage of the specialized technique of in vitro fertilization to explore the phenomenon of ‘egg defensiveness’. An earlier study of mine had shown that males with high quality sperm have greater in vivo fertilization success, and suggested that competitive conditions will favour sperm that rapidly penetrate the egg. However, a detrimental outcome of increased ‘sperm aggressiveness’ is an elevation in the frequency that more than one sperm will enter the egg (polyspermy). As a response to the fatal threat of polyspermy, females are expected to counter-adapt by increasing their resistance to fertilization, or become more ‘defensive’. Sexual conflict theory thus views females as walking an evolutionary tightrope: reduced defenses increase the risk of polyspermy, while overly efficient defenses may prevent fertilization altogether. Empirical support of this paradigm was previously limited to just two comparative studies. My recent investigations have extended this evidence beyond correlational data, and for the first time within a species, I have observed both evolutionary and plastic responses in egg resistance to fertilization. These results have shown that sperm competition has the potential to drive egg resistance to fertilization, which may rapidly generate reproductive barriers between populations.

  • Título: Mutualistic networks: 15 years of research at EBD
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Jordi Bascompte

    • Fecha: 

      09 - diciembre - 2014

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      13:00 CABIMER

    • Resumen: 

      repaso a toda su trabajo y el de su grupo en la EBD en los últimos años

  • Título: Efectos del fuego sobre las hormigas y otros artrópodos: Un estudio a diferentes escalas
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      José M. Vidal Cordero

    • Fecha: 

      11 - diciembre - 2014

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      13:00 CABIMER

    • Resumen: 

      Los incendios constituyen una perturbación que provoca grandes alteraciones en ecosistemas mediterráneos, afectando al paisaje y la dinámica y estructura de las comunidades. Una amplia literatura indica que, en ambientes propensos a incendios como la Península Ibérica, las comunidades vegetales autóctonas son relativamente resilientes, recuperándose progresivamente después del fuego. En cambio, la información disponible sobre los efectos en las comunidades animales, y concretamente en invertebrados, es mucho más escasa. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de la tesis es entender cómo especies, comunidades y ecosistema responden a los cambios ambientales provocados por el fuego analizando los efectos de este en: 1) Los patrones de abundancia y riqueza específica de hormigas, coleópteros y arañas, 2) La diversidad funcional de hormigas, coleópteros y arañas, 3) Las relaciones de dominancia en las comunidades de hormigas y 4) el uso de los recursos tróficos por las hormigas

  • Título: Using palaeogenomes to explore the evolutionary history of Pleistocene Megafauna
    • Centro: 

      Department of Bioinformatics and Genetics Swedish Museum of Natural History. Stockholm University

    • Autor: 

      Love Dalén

    • Fecha: 

      26 - enero - 2016

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Cabimer, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Genomic data from samples that originate from different time periods (heterochronous samples) provide a unique opportunity to directly examine temporal changes in genome-wide diversity. Moreover, genomic data from different points in time can also be used to infer genome-wide mutation rates, which in turn can be used to assess the timing of demographic changes and population divergence events. The aim of this presentation is to showcase how such analyses can be done, using data from woolly mammoth and wolf as examples.

  • Título: The Evolution of Terrestrial Breeding in African Amphibians
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Christoph Liedtke

    • Fecha: 

      26 - noviembre - 2015

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      The transition from aquatic to terrestrial reproduction in early tetrapods is viewed as a major adaptive change in the history of life. Extant amphibians are an interesting group for testing how such a shift may have occured, given the multiple, independent evolutionary changes towards terrestrial breeding in this group. Many amphibian species show partly or fully terrestrial modes of reproduction and their spatial distribution correlate with specific life history traits as well as climatic and environmental factors. Phylogenetic comparative methods provide a powerful tool for investigating such evolutionary correlations and in this seminar, I will use two examples from Africa: the fauna of the speices-rich Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania and the diverse African colonizers, the true toads, to test hypotheses on the evolution of terrestrial life history strategies, their effect on evolutionary rate dynamics and on evolutionary lineage diversification.

  • Título: Proyecto Yaguareté: Investigaciones para conservar el jaguar en el Bosque Atlántico de Argentina
    • Centro: 

      National Scientific and Technical Research Council, Buenos Aires

    • Autor: 

      Agustín Paviolo

    • Fecha: 

      25 - noviembre - 2015

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      El jaguar ha pedido cerca del 95% de su distribución en Argentina y esta críticamente amenazado. Desde el año 2003 desarrollamos investigaciones sobre el estado poblacional de la especie y sus principales amenazas para generar información que sirva de base para el desarrollo de estrategias de conservación. Para obtener la información básica hemos utilizado distintas metodologías incluyendo relevamientos con cámaras trampas, muestreo de participativos, seguimiento de individuos mediante collares GPS y técnicas genéticas. Para el análisis de datos hemos usado distintos enfoques desarrollando diferentes modelos de hábitat, y hemos utilizado modelos de captura-recaptura para la estimación de densidad. Hemos desarrollado un análisis de viabilidad poblacional y utilizamos modelos de conectividad del paisaje para evaluar distintas alternativas para mantener el hábitat de la especie. Durante la charla recorreré los distintos pasos que hemos dado durante el proceso y las nuevas investigaciones en marcha. Para más información sobre nuestro trabajo pueden visitar www.proyectoyaguarete.com.ar o www.facebook.com/proyaguarete

  • Título: Herbivores control plant diversity and impact on resource availability in 'open' systems
    • Centro: 

      The University of Texas

    • Autor: 

      Mathew A. Leibold

    • Fecha: 

      19 - noviembre - 2015

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Although there are numerous studies of the impact of herbivores on plants, most experimental studies are limited to small enclosures that do not fully account for the ways they may change community assembly via colonization-mediated processes. In a mesocosm study to overcomes some of these limitations, we found that herbivory accounted for about half of plant species richness and strongly altered the ability of plants to suppress nitrogen and phosphorus availability. Other factors such as eutrophication, stoichiometry and shading also affected plant composition (but not species richness) but did not have as big an impact. These results contrast with many previous experiments that did not adequately account for the ways colonization-extinction processes altered the role of herbivores and suggest that herbivory may be much more important that has been though.

  • Título: approaches to evolution in non-models
    • Centro: 

      Department for Botany and Biodiversity Research University of Vienna

    • Autor: 

      Ovidiu Paun

    • Fecha: 

      11 - noviembre - 2015

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      In the recent years powerful tools have become available to understand why and how organisms diversify. In my talk I will exemplify the use of “omics” in natural populations, giving insights into three different studies. What are the processes shaping the adaptive radiation of 24 species of Diospyros on New Caledonia after a single long-distance dispersal event? What is the importance of recurrent allopolyploidization in Dactylorhiza and what mechanisms allow sibling polyploids to adapt to divergent environments? How reproducible is parallel evolution of distinct ecotypes in Heliosperma? My group is currently addressing these questions by investigating the links between the genetic constitution of individuals, their epigenetic regulatory landscape and their native environmental conditions. Biology is more exciting than ever!

  • Título: Amphibians and breeding phenology: a life history perspective
    • Centro: 

      Animal Ecology, Dept. Ecology and Genetics, Uppsala University, Sweden.

    • Autor: 

      Germán Orizaola

    • Fecha: 

      05 - noviembre - 2015

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Cabimer, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Time is often a critical ecological constraint determining whether animals survive and successfully reproduce. Organisms have evolved to synchronise the timing of key seasonal events (i.e. reproduction, migration, hibernation) with the environmental conditions that maximize their fitness. Seasonal environments are characterised by short time-windows with optimal conditions to breed and grow. However, the timing and length of these conditions are variable among seasons, and many organisms have recently experienced abrupt changes in their phenology ascribed to climate change. The capacity of organisms to track alterations in seasonality and adjust their life-history strategies to the changing environment is thus crucial for adapting to the current scenario of high climatic variability. In my research, I focus on the processes and mechanisms that allow organisms to cope with phenological variation, using amphibians as study models. In this seminar, I will talk about the plasticity of life-history strategies in larval amphibians in response to changes in breeding phenology, the interaction between life-history responses to breeding phenology and predation risk, as well as on the costs and potential activation mechanisms of alternative life-history strategies in amphibians.

  • Título: Does biodiversity matter for ecosystem services?
    • Centro: 

      Rutgers University

    • Autor: 

      Rachael Winfree

    • Fecha: 

      26 - octubre - 2015

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Sala de Juntas EBD, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Over 600 biodiversity-ecosystem function experiments have established that many ecosystem services, such as biomass production, carbon storage, and pollination, increase with increasing species richness. Leading conservation organizations are now embracing ecosystem services as an argument for conserving biodiversity. However, how well the results of small-scale ecological experiments can be extrapolated to real-world landscapes is not known. This seminar presents two of the first landscape- and regional-scale studies of this question, both of which suggest that biodiversity may not be as critical to ecosystem service provision as has been assumed.

  • Título: Population genomics of the mountain treeshrew (Tupaia montana), a comparison of mitogenomes, SNPs and UCEs
    • Centro: 

      Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Washington DC

    • Autor: 

      Melissa Roberts

    • Fecha: 

      30 - octubre - 2015

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Sala de Junta EBD, 13:30

    • Resumen: 

      We assessed the population and/or phylogenetic structure of a small mammal, the mountain treeshrew, across a small geographic scale, and large elevational gradient. We collected samples from two field seasons to Sabah, Malaysia, and enriched the DNA through in-solution hybridization for a panel of UltraConserved Elements (UCEs). Additionally, we amplified the complete mitochondrial genome. The large dataset generated here provides insight into the limits of 'universal' phylogenetic markers on recently diverged species

  • Título: Let the niche be functional
    • Centro: 

      CEFE, CNRS, Montpellier

    • Autor: 

      Isabelle Chuine

    • Fecha: 

      29 - octubre - 2015

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Sala de Junta EBD, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Hutchinson definition of the niche has had a tremendous impact on niche modelling and inspired the most prolific species distribution models (SDMs) ever. Those models, called correlative SDM, relate statistically the species presence/absence to various environmental descriptors. They are very much specific and precise, but lack some generality and realisms in the sense of Levins. In this talk I propose another definition of the niche based on species traits and present a new generation of SDMs, namely process-based SMDs, that I use to predict the geographical distribution of forest tree species in Europe. Process-based models are sometimes less precise than correlative models, but are more realistic and more general. I will present some recent results on projections of species future distribution changes as well as projections of past changes (Holocene). Finally I will present how such models can be used to study the impact of phenotypic plasticity on range size and distribution changes, as well as current and future selection gradient of key adaptive traits.

  • Título: Measures of fitness: opening the Pandora’s box
    • Centro: 

      Centre d’Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, Montpellier

    • Autor: 

      Thomas Lenormand

    • Fecha: 

      27 - octubre - 2015

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      13:00, Cabimer

    • Resumen: 

      Although there is no difficulty in theory in estimating fitnesses, in practice, the difficulties are virtually insuperable” (Lewontin, 1974).Fitness is a key concept in evolutionary biology. In many models, this is a quantity that can be defined without (too much) ambiguity. When it comes to test these models of evolution and measure fitness empirically, however, many difficulties arise, in addition to these definitional problems. In this presentation, I will try to summarize and provide an overview of these issues. I will present different approaches to measure fitness in the lab or in the field, distinguishing 'forward' and 'backward' methods. To illustrate each case, I will use examples from my work that include some of the most precise estimates that have been obtained to date. I will finally relate the problems of fitness measures to important debates in evolutionary biology.

  • Título: The deciphering and the understanding of strategies used by living organisms to ensure the success of their development in ecosystems
    • Centro: 

      CNRS Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique

    • Autor: 

      David G Biron

    • Fecha: 

      22 - octubre - 2015

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Sala de Junta EBD-CSIC, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Many parasite taxa are able of altering a wide range of phenotypic traits of their hosts in ways that seem to improve the parasite’s chance of completing its life cycle. Alteration in host behaviour are classically seen as compelling illustrations of the “extended phenotype” concept suggesting that some parasite genes have phenotype effects on the host. There are many impressive examples of such phenomena. For instance, several anecdotal reports in the literature have suggested that arthropods parasitized by hairworms and mermithids commit ’suicide’ by jumping into an aquatic environment needed by the adult worms for the continuation of their life cycle. Despite increasing evidence of host phenotypic manipulation by parasites, the underlying mechanisms causing infected hosts to act in ways that benefit the parasite remain generally enigmatic. Also, the host-parasite cross-talks involved during the manipulative process of a host by its parasite are still poorly understood. Proteomics have been used to lay the foundations of the understanding of some aspects of manipulation by parasites (i.e. proximate mechanisms, crosstalk and evolutive convergence) by using some arthropod host-parasite associations. These pioneer studies reveal new candidate genes and biochemical pathways potentially involved in the manipulative process of a host by its parasite. In this talk, the parasite manipulation hypothesis will be briefly presented. Secondly, the pioneer proteomics results obtained on the manipulative process will be pointed out. I will present some additional considerations to move this work forwards. Future prospects for a new discipline in proteomics, the population proteomics, will be presented. This one could be used (i) to study the molecular crosstalk at population scale; (ii) to test ecological hypothesis on distribution range of species (ex.: Brown’s and EVH hypothesis); (iii) to decipher from the molecule to the habitat the taking-decisions to choice a microclimate by injurious and beneficial insects living alone or in association with a parasite; (iv) the behavioural strategies used to reach microclimates in an habitat. Finally, I will briefly present the application of proteomic tools to environmental problems for generating hypotheses regarding how xenobiotics could affect host-parasite associations in ecosystems. The environmental proteomics is a promising avenue to assess the effects of environmental pollution in ecosystems.

  • Título: Interacciones planta-suelo en sistemas naturales: mecanismos de funcionamiento e implicaciones para conservación y manejo de ecosistemas
    • Centro: 

      IHSM-UMA-CSIC & Ghent University

    • Autor: 

      Eduardo de la Peña

    • Fecha: 

      29 - septiembre - 2015

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Salón de Actos del CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      A pesar de la inmensa diversidad de especies que habitan en el suelo y de su importancia funcional tanto a nivel de comunidad como de ecosistema, la teoría ecológica ha tenido principalmente en cuenta las interacciones que ocurren en la parte aérea de las plantas dando menor importancia a lo que ocurre en el suelo. Sin embargo, durante la última década se ha revelado la importancia que tienen las interacciones planta-suelo sobre diferentes procesos que se dan en la parte aérea. Estos estudios han demostrado que estas interacciones son imprescindibles no sólo para entender la dinámica de la comunidad vegetal sino también las respuestas de otros niveles tróficos como son los herbívoros foliares, sus enemigos naturales, polinizadores, etc. Durante mi presentación analizaré este tipo de relaciones en algunos sistemas naturales (dunas costeras, brezales atlánticos, bosques templados caducifolios) que ilustran la importancia de estas interacciones para el funcionamiento y dinámica de la comunidad vegetal y sus implicaciones en el manejo y la restauración de ecosistemas.

  • Título: A Century of Climate and Land-use Impaces on the Metacommunity Dynamics of California Birds and Mammals
    • Centro: 

      Berkeley, University of California

    • Autor: 

      Steve Beissinger

    • Fecha: 

      17 - junio - 2015

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Salón de Juntas EBD-CSIC 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Beissinger Lab: We study conservation, behavior and population biology toward the goals of understanding the influence of climate change, managing endangered or commercially-valuable wildlife, or of understanding the factors shaping life histories to satisfy our curiosity about how nature works. Our research combines intensive field studies based on quantitative sampling with field or lab experimentation, and modeling. Recent work has been done in California, Venezuela, and Puerto Rico.

  • Título: Biodiversity: From Evolutionary Origins to Ecosystem Functioning
    • Centro: 

      College of Biological Sciences, University of Minnesota, USA

    • Autor: 

      David Tilman

    • Fecha: 

      15 - junio - 2015

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Salón de Actos CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      David Tilman has a dual appointment at the Bren School and the University of Minnesota, where he is Regents' Professor and McKnight Presidential Chair in Ecology and Director of the university’s Cedar Creek Ecosystem Science Reserve. His research focuses on the causes, consequences, and conservation of Earth’s biodiversity, and on how managed and natural ecosystems can sustainably meet human needs for food, energy, and ecosystem services. His current research explores ways to use biodiversity as a tool for biofuel production and climate stabilization through carbon sequestration. His work on sustainable agriculture and renewable energy has critically examined the full environmental, energetic, and economic costs and benefits of grain crops, of current food-based biofuels, and of biofuels made from diverse mixtures of prairie grasses and other native plants growing on already-degraded lands. He has also dedicated much of his career to communicating with the public, politicians, and the managers of Earth’s ecosystems in policy contexts.

  • Título: Conservation in the face of Climate Change
    • Centro: 

      Universidad de Helsinki

    • Autor: 

      Mar Cabeza

    • Fecha: 

      18 - junio - 2015

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Salón de Actos CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Increasing understanding of current and potential impacts of climate change has started to influence research and practice of conservation planning. In this talk, I will give an overview of the work our team does regarding the assessments of climate change impacts, and how assessments and projections can be integrated into conservation plans. I will show how policy and applications lack behind scientific knowledge and highlight important gaps that are unattended by conservation science. But in particular, I will focus on trade-offs. Conservation is often about tradeoffs: tradeoffs between biodiversity and economic interests or trade-offs between the different biodiversity features we want to save. Climate change adds yet another dimension to the trade-offs to be considered and balanced.

  • Título: Novel perspectives on marine turtle foraging ecology and migration
    • Centro: 

      University of Utah

    • Autor: 

      Hannah Vander Zanden

    • Fecha: 

      11 - junio - 2015

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Salón de Actos CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      My research is centered on deciphering the ecology, behavior, and movement of organisms, particularly marine turtles. I use stable isotopes in my studies, as they are biogeochemical markers that reflect trophic interactions and geographic origin. First, I will focus on individual vs. population level resource use patterns of sea turtles. I examined the long-term foraging history that can be obtained from sea turtle scute (the hard keratin covering on the shell) to investigate temporal consistency and specialization in resource use of both loggerheads (Caretta caretta) and green turtles (Chelonia mydas). I found that individual specialization is primarily due to foraging site fidelity and that foraging area preferences can contribute to differential reproductive output in loggerhead turtles. Second, I will discuss the use of stable isotopes as a tool in tracking animal migration. In the case of terrestrial organisms, hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope values in precipitation vary predictably with environmental and climatological factors. These markers reflect environmental water at the site where the tissue was synthesized and retain a record of origin when an animal moves. I have investigated how the incorporation of spatio-temporal variation in generating precipitation isoscape models can improve the ability to make accurate assignments of geographic origin. Whereas precipitation isoscapes have been used extensively in terrestrial studies, there are no equivalent isoscapes for the marine environment. Therefore, I developed and validated the use novel isoscapes for the Gulf of Mexico and Greater Caribbean and have provided the first application of probabilistic assignment to origin using marine isoscapes. I confirmed that the isoscape approach can be used to accurately decipher the movements of loggerheads in the Gulf of Mexico. I have also used long-term records in scute to examine sea turtle foraging behavior responses in the Gulf of Mexico following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

  • Título: Why (and how) do sperm find their way to particular conspecific eggs?
    • Centro: 

      Centre for Evolutionary Biology, University of Western Australia

    • Autor: 

      Jonathan Evans

    • Fecha: 

      28 - mayo - 2015

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Salón de Actos CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Sexual selection (essentially the competition for mates) is traditionally studied in highly mobile organisms with complex behavioural repertoires, sophisticated visual systems, and obvious adaptations that function in the context of increasing reproductive fitness. It is far less obvious how sexual selection operates in organisms that are immobile (e.g. clamped to the seabed) and release gametes seemingly haphazardly into the external environment (i.e. sessile or sedentary external fertilizers). Indeed, Charles Darwin comically dismissed the possibility of sexual selection in such taxa in his original treatise of the topic, arguing that these organisms have ‘too low mental powers’ to be capable of the subtleties of mate choice and mating competition. The aim of this talk will be to convince you otherwise. I will summarise a series of playful experiments on mussels and sea urchins that led to the observation that these taxa exhibit sophisticated processes of sperm-egg interaction that ultimately facilitate sexual selection at the level of the gamete. Our work on these systems has revealed preliminary insights into the complex patterns of selection on ejaculates and tantalizing evidence that eggs release subtle variations in chemical signals that may facilitate the fusion of genetically compatible gametes. I’ll end the talk with some inevitable speculation on the mechanisms that might drive these processes, with the firm hope that someone far more qualified than me will put me on the right track.

  • Título: Approaches to biodiversity conservation in the North
    • Centro: 

      University of Alberta

    • Autor: 

      Alberto Suárez-Esteban

    • Fecha: 

      07 - mayo - 2015

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Salón de Actos CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Failure to plan effectively for biodiversity conservation has led to irretrievable losses of ecosystem structure and function worldwide. In relatively intact systems, pro-actively plan for biodiversity conservation and for a sustainable use of natural resources is a must. The Boreal Avian Modelling (BAM) project and the Boreal Ecosystems Analysis for Conservation Networks (BEACONs) project provide models and tools for pro-active conservation and management of the largest remaining intact systems in the world, the Canadian boreal forest. Come and join Alberto Suarez-Esteban if you want to know more about these exciting initiatives

  • Título: De cómo es que el cangrejo autóctono no es autóctono
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Miguel Clavero

    • Fecha: 

      30 - abril - 2015

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Salón de Actos CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Puede ocurrir que se pierda la noción del carácter exótico de especies que se introdujeron hace mucho tiempo. Pareciera que cangrejos de río los hubiera habido en España de siempre, porque aquí estaban al menos desde antes de que naciera la persona más vieja que haya conocido la persona de más edad que viva hoy. Pero la revisión de la información generada desde diversas disciplinas muestra que una introducción desde Italia es la única explicación parsimoniosa para la presencia de Austropotamobius italicus (el “cangrejo autóctono”, tiene su gracia) en la península ibérica.

  • Título: What can life-history traits tell us about species’ ability to cope with climate change?
    • Centro: 

      Universidade de Évora

    • Autor: 

      Alba Estrada

    • Fecha: 

      16 - abril - 2015

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Salón de Actos CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Understanding the factors that govern species’ distributions is of utmost importance to predict potential range shifts triggered by climate change. Species' ranges are partially limited by their tolerances to extrinsic environmental conditions such as climate and habitat, and partially determined by species’ capacity to disperse, establish new populations, and proliferate, which are in turn dependent on species’ intrinsic life-history traits. Yet most forecasts of range shifts consider only climate and dispersal. In order to ask whether other factors should be considered, I (and my colleagues) investigated how range filling and range size of European plants, birds and mammals are determined by these factors. We found that traits related to ecological generalization, such as habitat breadth, were important for all groups of species. Dispersal and seed-banks that permit survival during unsuitable environmental conditions were highly important for plants, whereas fecundity-related traits were important for animal groups. We suggest that considering these traits would improve assessments of extinction vulnerability under climate change.

  • Título: Interacciones entre vectores y parásitos de la malaria aviar: competencia vectorial y variación espacio-temporal
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Rafael Gutiérrez

    • Fecha: 

      24 - marzo - 2015

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Salón de Actos CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Mi proyecto de tesis propone un estudio multidisciplinar, mediante el cual a partir de aproximaciones observacionales, experimentales y teóricas, analizamos como las especies de vectores de parásitos de la malaria aviar (mosquitos y Culicoides) determinan la eficacia biológica de diferentes líneas genéticas de Plasmodium y Haemoproteus, la importancia que presenta la infección sobre el vector, la competencia vectorial y el rango de vectores de dichas líneas genéticas.

  • Título: Ecological, demographic and genetic constraints on the conservation of the Endangered Lear's Macaw
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Erica Pacífico

    • Fecha: 

      26 - marzo - 2015

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Salón de Actos CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      This PhD Project is underway in the Conservation Biology Department, supervised by Dr. José L. Tella. We started working together in March 2014 in an investigation of the deterministic and stochastic effects that may be acting upon the dynamics of the remaining population of the endangered Lear’s Macaw, an endemic species from the Caatinga (Brazilian tropical dry forest), using a multidisciplinary approach with molecular tools, ecological modeling, stable isotope analysis and indices of breeding success. The entire population of the Lear’s Macaw is estimated at ca. 1200 birds, of which only 20% are breeders concentrated in two localities. This current population may be the outcome of a recent demographic increase from only approximately two hundred birds, estimated before the 2000s. Nesting and roosting sites are restricted to sandstone cliffs walls and the Licuri Palm fruit is supposedly their main food item. Our central hypothesis is that, if the population does not expand geographically, their continuous increase could result in the saturation of the environmental resources and generate negative density dependent effects. In this context, we aim to answer the following questions: Do breeding sites and food availability constrain the breeding success and the distribution of the Lear’s Macaw population? Is the genetic diversity of the current population constrained as a result of a genetic bottleneck? Is there sexual bias in the current population affecting the recruitment? Can the viability of the population be affect by any of these processes?

  • Título: Temporal and geographical patterns of natural and sexual selection in wild birds
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Jesús Martínez-Padilla

    • Fecha: 

      05 - marzo - 2015

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Salón de actos CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Natural selection is the main mechanism to explain the diversity of living organisms. However, natural selection is limited in absence of environmental variation. Yet, our knowledge on how evolution works under different environmental circumstances is extremely limited in wild populations, because most of our understanding of how natural selection operates has been focused in studies based on single years and populations. In this talk, I will show how different sources of environmental variation like food abundance, parasites or climatic conditions influence the variance of the expression of sexual traits in long-term (Common kestrels – Falco tinnunculus) or multiple studied populations (Red grouse – Lagopus lagopus scoticus). Also, I am particularly interested on showing some preliminary analyses looking at first, the influence of environmental heterogeneity on both additive genetic variance and selection (i.e. microevolution) in common kestrels. Second, exploring the evolutionary potential of multiple populations and species to respond to environmental change by analysing evolutionary biology using bio-geographical tools.

  • Título: Population dynamics of feral horses in Australia
    • Centro: 

      University of Queensland, Australia

    • Autor: 

      Magdalena Zabek

    • Fecha: 

      24 - febrero - 2015

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Salón de Actos CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Australia has the largest population of feral horses (Equus ferus caballus) in the world, with some one million feral horses occupying the diverse and often remote Australian environments. Despite numerous concerns raised by government agencies, private landholders, and the general public on feral horse presence in the Australian ecosystems, there is lack of collective solutions on the management of this overabundant species. In this talk I focus on two studies from my PhD research that relate to measurement of the main vital parameters of the population of feral horses, which occupies a unique coniferous environment in Australia. I will first discuss a method for measuring reproduction and survivorship of the population. I show that estimation of these parameters could be used for modelling the annual population growth rate, which in turn could be used for long-term population management. I will then screen a documentary, which depicts for the first time the social organisation of feral horses in Australia in an attempt to understand the biology of the species and their relationship with the environment. With this work I demonstrate the value of understanding the ecology of feral animals and encourage future managers and government organisations to cooperate in the formulation of the appropriate feral horse management programs in Australia and elsewhere.

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  • Título: Causes and community-level consequences for clinal adaptation in a foundational plant species
    • Centro: 

      UCI, University of California, Irvine

    • Autor: 

      Kailen Mooney

    • Fecha: 

      12 - febrero - 2015

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Salón de Actos CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Genetically-based variation in the functional traits of keystone species can influence the composition of the community within which those species are embedded. Similarly, local adaptation to biotic and abiotic environmental variation can drive population-level variation in such traits. We test the hypothesis that local adaptation of a keystone plant can lead to variation among populations in the community of associated arthropods. Studying a strong environmental cline along the California coast, we test for local adaptation in the perennial shrub Artemisia californica and its consequences for the more than 200 species of associated arthropods.

  • Título: An integrative approach to phylogeograhy: investigating the evolutionary history of two co-distributed amphibians at different geographic and temporal scales
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Iñigo Martínez Solano

    • Fecha: 

      15 - enero - 2015

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Salón de actos CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      One of the keys to the success of the field of phylogeography is its flexibility and ability to integrate information from different fields, although arguably so far it has been unable to successfully incorporate demographic data in the inference process. We aim to contribute to fill this gap through a combination of modeling, field- and molecular-based approaches conducted at different geographic and temporal scales. This is illustrated through the analysis of two co-distributed amphibian species (Pleurodeles waltl and Pelobates cultripes), including 1) local (pond-based) studies producing data on local abundance (effective / census population size ratio) and fine-scale movement patterns; 2) regional studies describing landscape-level patterns of gene flow; and 3) range-wide studies including species distribution modeling (past and present environmental favourability) and analyses of multilocus datasets. Our approach highlights the need for an organismal, integrative and iterative phylogeography, continuously testing and producing new hypotheses on the origins of biodiversity. We also emphasize the practical (conservation) applications of this approach, for instance for the establishment of programs of long-term genetic monitoring.

  • Título: Evaluación bioética de proyectos de investigación con fauna salvaje
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Tomás Redondo

    • Fecha: 

      04 - diciembre - 2014

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Sala de Juntas - EBD, 12:00

    • Resumen: 

      "La normativa actual sobre experimentación animal introduce relevantes cambios en los requisitos formales de control a los que se deben someter los proyectos y procedimientos en los que se utilicen animales vivos. Esta normativa contempla la necesidad de evaluación previa de los proyectos, de evaluación retrospectiva de los mismos en determinados casos, la obligatoriedad de clasificar los procedimientos en función de su grado de severidad, las exigencias de transparencia e información (RD 53/2013). Las distintas convocatorias de financiación de la investigación exigen que los proyectos que impliquen experimentación animal cumplan los requisitos establecidos por la legislación vigente, y que cuenten con la autorización pertinente antes del comienzo de la ejecución de los procedimientos. Este proceso de evaluación y autorización suele plantear numerosas dudas tanto a los investigadores como a los miembros de los Comités de Ética de los centros de investigación que deben informar sobre dichos proyectos. En este seminario se intentará resumir el estado actual de esta normativa en lo que se refiere a investigación con fauna salvaje y tratar de aclarar las dudas que los investigadores puedan tener al respect"

  • Título: Biotic homogenisation and resistance to invasions on oceanic islands
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Margarita Florencio

    • Fecha: 

      04 - febrero - 2015

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Sala de Juntas EBD, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      Human landscape alterations and invasions by non-native species are one of the main causes of biodiversity loss. The predicted effect of indigenous species extinctions and exotic species colonisation is the increase of biotic homogenisation in human-altered landscapes. This process is accentuated on isolated oceanic islands where numerous empty niche opportunities are offered. To assess the role of exotic species in biotic homogenisation, we sampled epigean and canopy arthropod assemblages in four islands of the Azores archipelago. Habitats were selected across a disturbance gradient from native forests to most disturbed agricultural areas. We detected that exotic species promote assemblage homogenisation. Interestingly, such process was contingent on each island and habitat. We also analysed the degree of nestedness, which represents the extent of ordered loss/gain of species across environmental or ecological gradients. On the contrary, species can show segregation characterising their species replacement across such gradients. We detected that both exotic and indigenous species may show segregated patterns, indicating distinct local assemblages. Thus, exotic species also show habitat specialisation, not necessarily contributing to the homogenisation of regional fauna. We also detected that in most disturbed agricultural habitats, the species richness of both indigenous and exotic species was drastically reduced. However, only exotics showed low species richness in native forests, suggesting that native assemblages may have a degree of resistance to invasions in undisturbed habitats. Concluding, habitat disturbance seems to be a key factor structuring both epigean and canopy assemblages in the Azores archipelago.

  • Título: Presentación de Proyectos de Tesis
    • Centro: 

      Estación Biológica de Doñana

    • Autor: 

      Joan Giménez Verdugo y José Mª Romero López

    • Fecha: 

      05 - febrero - 2015

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Salón de Actos CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      "- Joan Giménez Verdugo Título: Ecología espacial y trófica de los cetáceos del Golfo de Cádiz. Directores: Renaud de Stephanis y Manuela G. Forero Resumen: La península ibérica y en concreto las aguas andaluzas están reconocidas como lugares de gran importancia para diferentes especies de cetáceos debido a la gran diversidad y densidad de especies que habitan en ellas. A pesar de ello existe un vacío sobre la ecología trófica y espacial de los cetáceos que habitan en el Golfo de Cádiz. Los objetivos generales de la tesis son: (1) Conocer la abundancia y distribución espacio-temporal de los cetáceos en el Golfo de Cádiz, (2) Estudiar la competencia con las pesquerías locales y (3) Determinar qué medidas de conservación son las correctas para la comunidad de cetáceos del Golfo de Cádiz -Jose Mª Romero López Título: Cooperación y conflicto en hermanos de nidada de Cigüeña Blanca (Ciconia ciconia). Director: Dr. Tomás Redondo Nevado Resumen: El estudio profundiza en las interacciones padres-crías y en las causas que conducen al comportamiento cooperativo entre hermanos de nido de Cigüeña Blanca, en oposición al comportamiento abiertamente competitivo presente en la mayoría de especies de aves semialtriciales."

  • Título: R-data management
    • Centro: 

      Berkeley Institute for Data Science, UC Berkeley

    • Autor: 

      Karthik Ram

    • Fecha: 

      17 - febrero - 2015

    • Lugar, Hora: 

      Salón de Actos CABIMER, 13:00

    • Resumen: 

      "Research is becoming increasingly data intensive and computation driven across various scientific domains from the social and life sciences all the way to particle physics. Many new scientific insights will likely emerge from vast stores of existing data, rather than from new data collection efforts. In addition, funder and journal mandates now require that researchers share at least the final datasets at the time of publication. rOpenSci is an effort to foster such data driven science among researchers that use R. Our suite of tools (http://ropensci.org/packages/) allow access to these data repositories through a statistical programming environment that is already a familiar part of the workflow of many scientists. Our tools not only facilitate drawing data into an environment where it can readily be manipulated, but also one in which those analyses and methods can be easily shared, replicated, and extended by other researchers. In this talk we highlight some our recent efforts in advancing open and transparent practices in the sciences."

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