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Seminarios

Grabaciones en vídeo de los seminarios de la EBD
Documentos
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Mostrando el intervalo 1 - 20 de 90 resultados.
Nombre Tamaño Descargas
01_03_2018, Matthew Webster
The genomic basis of local adaptation in honeybees Uncovering the genetic basis of adaptive traits and the processes that drive adaptation are important goals in biology. Here I will describe recent studies of the genomics of local adaptation in bees. The results highlight the importance of chromosomal inversions in adaptation and demonstrate how admixture can facilitate adaptation. I will also present studies of the genomic basis of adaptive response to recent environmental change.
779,7MB 10
03_12_2015, Ingrid Parker, Phylogenetic structure and host abundance drive disease pressure in communities
Prof. Ingrid M. Parker Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology University of California, Santa Cruz http://parker.eeb.ucsc.edu/ Title: Phylogenetic structure and host abundance drive disease pressure in communities Abstract: Pathogens play an important part in shaping the structure and dynamics of natural communities. A shared goal of ecology and epidemiology is to predict when a species is most vulnerable to disease. A leading hypothesis asserts that the impact of disease should increase with host abundance, producing a ‘rare-species advantage’. However, the impact of a pathogen may be decoupled from host abundance, because most pathogens infect more than one species, leading to pathogen spillover onto closely related species. We study how the phylogenetic and ecological structure of the surrounding community can be important predictors of disease pressure in a grassland plant community. We formulate predictive models of pathogen sharing using a global database, then use these models to predict disease pressure at the local scale. We find that we can both explain variation in disease across a community of hosts and predict disease pressure for experimentally introduced novel hosts. Our work has implications for the maintenance of biodiversity, epidemiology, biotic resistance against introduced weeds, and the success of managed plants in agriculture and forestry.
281,6MB 379
04_02_2016, Isabel Pacios, Efecto de parasitosis y virosis en la condición fisiológica y la dinámica poblacional del conejo de monte (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
María Isabel Pacios Departmento de Etología y Conservación de la Biodiversidad Estación Biológica de Doñana Título: Efecto de parasitosis y virosis en la condición fisiológica y la dinámica poblacional del conejo de monte (Oryctolagus cuniculus) Resumen: Las enfermedades infecciosas constituyen una de las principales amenazas para la conservación de especies silvestres, no obstante el desconocimiento en este campo aún sigue siendo grande en muchos sentidos. El objeto primero de la presente tesis es estudiar los parámetros eco-epidemiológicos en una población silvestre, usando para ello como modelo el conejo de monte (Oryctolagus cuniculus) y sus dos principales virosis: mixomatosis (MV) y enfermedad hemorrágica del conejo (EHCV). Este modelo nos permite estudiar la emergencia y el desarrollo de las enfermedades sobre poblaciones reales en estado de semi-libertad, identificar posibles interacciones de estos agentes patógenos con factores bióticos y/o abióticos y conocer su efecto último sobre la dinámica poblacional.
181,9MB 400
05_03_2015 Jesús Martínez Padilla, Temporal and geographical patterns of natural and sexual selection in wild birds
Natural selection is the main mechanism to explain the diversity of living organisms. However, natural selection is limited in absence of environmental variation. Yet, our knowledge on how evolution works under different environmental circumstances is extremely limited in wild populations, because most of our understanding of how natural selection operates has been focused in studies based on single years and populations. In this talk, I will show how different sources of environmental variation like food abundance, parasites or climatic conditions influence the variance of the expression of sexual traits in long-term (Common kestrels – Falco tinnunculus) or multiple studied populations (Red grouse – Lagopus lagopus scoticus). Also, I am particularly interested on showing some preliminary analyses looking at first, the influence of environmental heterogeneity on both additive genetic variance and selection (i.e. microevolution) in common kestrels. Second, exploring the evolutionary potential of multiple populations and species to respond to environmental change by analysing evolutionary biology using bio-geographical tools.
287,7MB 46
05_11_2015, Germán Orizaola, Amphibians and breeding phenology, a life history perspective
Amphibians and breeding phenology: a life history perspective Germán Orizaola Animal Ecology, Dept. Ecology and Genetics, Uppsala University, Sweden. Time is often a critical ecological constraint determining whether animals survive and successfully reproduce. Organisms have evolved to synchronise the timing of key seasonal events (i.e. reproduction, migration, hibernation) with the environmental conditions that maximize their fitness. Seasonal environments are characterised by short time-windows with optimal conditions to breed and grow. However, the timing and length of these conditions are variable among seasons, and many organisms have recently experienced abrupt changes in their phenology ascribed to climate change. The capacity of organisms to track alterations in seasonality and adjust their life-history strategies to the changing environment is thus crucial for adapting to the current scenario of high climatic variability. In my research, I focus on the processes and mechanisms that allow organisms to cope with phenological variation, using amphibians as study models. In this seminar, I will talk about the plasticity of life-history strategies in larval amphibians in response to changes in breeding phenology, the interaction between life-history responses to breeding phenology and predation risk, as well as on the costs and potential activation mechanisms of alternative life-history strategies in amphibians.
192,4MB 34
06_10_2016, Elena Gómez-Díaz,
Epigenetic cross-talk between the human malaria parasite and its mosquito vector Abstract: Host-parasite interactions are amongst the most plastic systems in nature. Epigenetic processes regulate transcription and provide means for rapid responses to the environment that can be heritable. To test the idea that epigenetic mechanisms regulate host-parasite adaptive phenotypic responses in the course of an infection, in this project I used a natural system involving the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and its natural mosquito vector Anopheles gambiae. My investigations combine genome-wide analysis of trancription by RNA-seq, the analysis of histone modifications by ChIP-seq, as well as the study of chromatin structure by ATAC-seq, at different time stages during parasite life-cycle in the mosquito. In this talk I will focus first on the results on the parasite, which show that in the course of a malaria infection P.falciparum undergoes a number of alterations in patterns of gene expression, which depend in turn on reciprocal modifications to the structure and organization of the chromatin. Importantly, these changes impact genes linked to malaria pathogenesis. I will then move to present results on the mosquito vector. In this case, the comparison of histone modification and gene expression profiles between infected and uninfected mosquitoes allowed us to identify malaria responsive epigenes as those mosquito genes showing correlated changes in mRNA and histone mark levels in response to infection. In addition, the analysis of small non-coding RNAs identified a set of mosquito miRNAs whose abundance is altered in response to infection and potentially target multiple immune genes. These findings are not only relevant at the fundamental level for the fields of Plasmodium and mosquito biology, but have important practical implications for the design of new strategies to fight malaria.
507,6MB 787
08_02_2018, Carlos M.Herrera
Ecología de la variación subindividual en plantas. "Una conferencia sobre ciertas obviedades vegetales de consecuencias nada obvias". Lectura impartida en EAB2017 Joint Meeting BES Gfö Diciembre 2017 con ocasión del Ernst Haeckel Prize concedido al profesor Carlos M. Herrera, Estación Biológica de Doñana, CSIC.
730,7MB 20
09_02_2017, Alvaro Bayon
Ponente: Vary Bayón Title: Regional analysis of temporal trends and horizon scanning of commercial alien species Abstract: Biological invasions by alien species represent one of the major current threats to diversity. The commercial uses of alien species for recreational or ornamental uses are main pathways for deliberate introduction. The main objective of my thesis is to obtain a scientific analysis of the historical trends for the use of alien species with commercial value in Spain and the prediction of potential related future threats that allows us to carry out preventive actions. The first chapter is at a quite advanced stage. We conducted an ‘horizon scanning’ analysis of outdoor gardening plants commercially available in Spain. For this purpose we compiled a database which includes the vast majority of plant species sold in the market (919) and we classified them according to (1) its invasive status in Spain, including if regulated, (2) its invasive status elsewhere, (3) its climatic suitability for Spain, and (4) its potential ecological and socio-economic impacts. This database will be transferred to the national environmental authorities as the bases for Horizon scanning on potential invasive species in Spain which introduction could be avoided. Another chapter will be on the analyses of historical, functional and phylogenetic trends of planted woody plants in urban parks. Finally, I also plan to conduct an historical analyses of fashions of pets, hunting and sport fishing species based on specialized popular journals.
231,7MB 250
09_04_2015, Proyecto Horus, Calum Morrison and Holly Pink, Nest 6N4 (2012) and Nest 6S2 (2012) 139,8MB 66
09_06_2016, Cristina Botias, Quantifying exposure of bees to pesticides
In recent years, an intense debate has been generated about the environmental risks posed by neonicotinoids, a group of widely-used, neurotoxic insecticides. When these systemic compounds are applied to seeds low concentrations are subsequently found in the nectar and pollen of the crop and so they can be consumed by bees. A key point of controversy is whether bees consume enough of these compounds during the flowering period of the crop to do them significant harm. Thus, there is a need to understand the routes of exposure for bees and the levels present in the pollen and nectar of the flowers they visit. In this seminar I will show the concentrations of neonicotinoid insecticides that bees are exposed to when they forage in agricultural landscapes, and I will comment on the work in progress where I am assessing the effect of field-realistic levels of pesticides on bumblebee colonies.
572,1MB 387
10_02_2016, Julio Araujo, Caracterización de las comunidades acuáticas en la cuenca andino amazónica de Madre de Dios - Perú
Julio Araujo Biología Ambiental y Salud Pública Universidad de Huelva Título: Caracterización de las comunidades acuáticas en la cuenca andino amazónica de Madre de Dios - Perú Resumen: El proyecto de tesis se enfoca en el estudio de comunidades acuáticas -con énfasis en la ictiofauna- en una región del piedemonte y la llanura de la cuenca amazónica, el río Madre de Dios al sureste de la Amazonía Peruana. El gradiente altitudinal que abarca el área de estudio y la falta de información previa suponen la principal justificación del estudio.
236,9MB 488
10_05_2017, Salit Kark
Title What shapes spatial invasion patterns of alien birds in Australia vs. Europe? Summary I will talk about the factors shaping invasive species richness and distribution in Europe and Australia at large scales and will also present several case studies from our work on interactions between invasive and native birds from around the world, with focus on parrots, starlings, mynas and more.
625,5MB 12
10_11_2016, Stijn van Gils
Title: Optimizing ecosystem services and its limitations Abstract: Ecosystem services, such as pollination and pest control, largely underpin the production in arable agriculture. Treatments to enhance one ecosystem service, however, may influence the effect of other ecosystem services and knowledge about these interaction effects can be used to optimize ecosystem services to enhance agricultural production. Over the last few years various experiments have been performed to test how ecosystem services can be optimized. In my presentation I will present some of my own work on the optimization of ecosystem services, as well as the limitations to this kind of studies. Stijn van Gils (Netherlands Institute of Ecology,NIOO-KNAW) www.stijnvangils.nl/nioo
431MB 327
10_12_2015, Christoph Liedtke, The Evolution of Terrestrial Breeding in African Amphibians
Christoph Liedtke Dept. Ecología de Humedales Estación Biológica de Doñana (CSIC) Title: The Evolution of Terrestrial Breeding in African Amphibians Abstract: The transition from aquatic to terrestrial reproduction in early tetrapods is viewed as a major adaptive change in the history of life. Extant amphibians are an interesting group for testing how such a shift may have occured, given the multiple, independent evolutionary changes towards terrestrial breeding in this group. Many amphibian species show partly or fully terrestrial modes of reproduction and their spatial distribution correlate with specific life history traits as well as climatic and environmental factors. Phylogenetic comparative methods provide a powerful tool for investigating such evolutionary correlations and in this seminar, I will use two examples from Africa: the fauna of the speices-rich Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania and the diverse African colonizers, the true toads, to test hypotheses on the evolution of terrestrial life history strategies, their effect on evolutionary rate dynamics and on evolutionary lineage diversification
342,8MB 33
11_01_2018, Erika Lopez
Directos al nucleus accumbens! Cómo crear adictos a la ciencia. Responsable de Comunicación del CSIC Andalucía La divulgación no es una opción, es una necesidad. Pero no puede realizarse de cualquier forma: requiere conectar con el público, seducirle, atraerle y ganarle para la causa. Por ello, quienes tenemos la obligación de hacer la ciencia extensible a la sociedad debemos usar herramientas a la hora de comunicar que apelen a su emoción. Os lanzo dos preguntas para que reflexionemos: ¿Hay algo que no pueda ser comprendido? ¿Hay algo que no pueda ser explicado? Si la respuesta es NO, estás listo para comunicar ciencia. En este pequeño encuentro abordaremos los principales problemas a la hora de comunicar ciencia, cómo solventarlos, cuáles son las herramientas más adecuadas y, finalmente, veremos algunos casos prácticos de éxito y fracaso.
680,7MB 9
11_05_2017, Kevin Johnson
Ponente: Kevin P. Johnson Título: The Tree of Lice: The History of Host-Parasite Coevolution Resumen: Parasites are model systems for linking microevolutionary processes with macroevolutionary patterns. Avian feather lice spend their entire lifecycle on the body of their host and are highly host specific. Variation in host specificity across different groups of dove feather lice is related to differences in dispersal ability, which translates into differences in how much the evolutionary tree of lice matches that of their hosts. Across feather lice more broadly, genera differ in how they escape host preening defenses, having repeatedly evolved into head, wing, and body lice, often diverging within a single host group. New phylogenomic techniques using an automated Target Restricted Assembly (aTRAM) method can assemble thousands of genes from genome sequences of lice, which have relatively small genomes. Phylogenies based on these genes are highly supported and provide new insights into the higher level relationships of lice.
326,6MB 243
12_01_2017, Carlos Gutierrez Exposito
Ponente: Carlos Gutiérrez-Expósito (Departamento de Biología de la Conservación) Título: Biology and Conservation of the Andalusian Buttonquail (Turnix sylvaticus sylvaticus, Resumen: The buttonquail family (Turnicidae) is one of the least studied bird groups of the world. Among them, the nominate subspecies of the Small Buttonquail (Turnix sylvaticus), widely known as Andalusian Buttonquail, formerly occurred along the western Mediterranean countries in both European (Italy, Spain & Portugal) and African (from Libya to Morocco) shores. Starting from a global review of the knowledge status of the whole family, we will focus on the recent history and status of this critically endangered taxon. Based on museum specimen data and historic literature we will reconstruct the former distribution area and then study the long-term changes in land use and the environmental drivers that can explain the large decline of the species along the XX century. Then an assessment of the demography status and habitat selection of the last remnant population that still exist in Morocco will be done as well as a description on the breeding biology and the natural history if this population.
552,4MB 349
12_01_2017, Sara Castro
Ponente: Sara Castro (Dept Etología y Conservación de la Biodiversidad) Título: ¿Determinan las comunidades nativas el éxito e impacto de las invasiones biológicas? Resumen: El estudio de las es de vital importancia ya que representan uno de los procesos más importantes de cambio global y pérdida de biodiversidad. Son dos los factores determinan la invasión de una nueva área: las características de la especie que invade, que determinan su potencial para invadir; y las características del ecosistema nativo, que determinan su susceptibilidad a ser invadido (“invasibilidad") y su vulnerabilidad a los impactos potenciales. Mi tesis se centra en este segundo factor, evaluando el efecto de las comunidades nativas en el éxito e impacto a una invasora mundial, la hormiga argentina (Linepithema humile), y la importancia relativa de uno de los principales mecanismos que modulan estos efectos: la resistencia biótica.
315,1MB 363
12_02_2015 Kailen Mooney, Causes and community-level consequences for clinal adaptation in a foundational plant species
Genetically-based variation in the functional traits of keystone species can influence the composition of the community within which those species are embedded. Similarly, local adaptation to biotic and abiotic environmental variation can drive population-level variation in such traits. We test the hypothesis that local adaptation of a keystone plant can lead to variation among populations in the community of associated arthropods. Studying a strong environmental cline along the California coast, we test for local adaptation in the perennial shrub Artemisia californica and its consequences for the more than 200 species of associated arthropods.
182,1MB 225
12_04_2018, Denis Bourguet
DENIS BOURGUET /Centre de Biologie pour la Gestion des Populations (CBGP), Montpellier/. PEER COMMUNITY IN: A FREE PUBLIC SYSTEM FOR PEER-REVIEWING AND HIGHLIGHTING PREPRINTS. In order to offer an alternative to the current system of publication -which is particularly expensive and not very transparent - we have initiated the Peer Community in (PCI, https://peercommunityin.org) project. PCI is a non-profit scientific organization that aims to create specific communities of researchers reviewing and recommending,for free, unpublished preprints in their field (i.e. unpublished articles deposited on open online archives like arXiv.org and bioRxiv.org). Each PCI is a group of several hundreds recommenders playing the role of editors who recommend such preprints based on peer-reviews to make them complete, reliable and citable articles, without the need for publication in 'traditional' journals (altough the authors can submit their recommended preprints afterwards). Evaluations and recommendations by PCI Evol Biol are free of charge. When a recommender decides to recommend a preprint, he/she writes a recommendation text that is published along with all the editorial correspondence (reviews, recommender's decisions, authors' replies) by PCI Evol Biol. The preprint itself is not published by PCI Evol Biol; it remains in the preprint server where it has been posted by the authors. The first Peer Community in has been launched in 2017: Peer Community in Evolutionary Biology (PCI Evol Biol). More than 350 recommenders have already joined PCI Evol Biol. PCI Paleontology and PCI Ecology have been launched in January 2018 and this latter PCI already counts 250 recommenders.
369,1MB 1
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Mostrando el intervalo 1 - 20 de 90 resultados.