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Honeybee colonies have increased exponentially in the Mediterranean Basin

Evidence for pollinator declines largely originates from mid-latitude regions in North America and Europe. Geographical heterogeneity in pollinator trends combined with geographical biases in pollinator studies can produce distorted extrapolations and limit understanding of pollinator responses to environmental changes. In contrast with the declines experienced in some well-investigated European and North American regions, honeybees seem to have increased recently in some areas of the Mediterranean Basin. The Mediterranean Basin is home to approximately 3300 wild bee species, or approximately 87% of those occurring in the whole western Palaearctic region. Because honeybees can have negative impacts on wild bees, it was hypothesized that a biome-wide alteration in bee pollinator assemblages may be underway in the Mediterranean Basin involving a reduction in the relative number of wild bees. This hypothesis was tested using published quantitative data on bee pollinators of wild and cultivated plants from studies conducted between 1963 and 2017 in 13 countries from the European, African and Asian shores of the Mediterranean Sea. The density of honeybee colonies increased exponentially and wild bees were gradually replaced by honeybees in flowers of wild and cultivated plants. The proportion of wild bees at flowers was four times greater than that of honeybees at the beginning of the period, the proportions of both groups becoming roughly similar 50 years later. The Mediterranean Basin is a world biodiversity hotspot for wild bees and wild bee-pollinated plants, and the ubiquitous rise of honeybees to dominance as pollinators could in the long run undermine the diversity of plants and wild bees in the region. informacion[at] Herrera (2020) Gradual replacement of wild bees by honeybees in flowers of the Mediterranean Basin over the last 50 years. Proc Royal Society B 287(1921). Doi 10.1098/rspb.2019.2657
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Central role of the mosquito Cx. perexiguus in the enzootic circulation of West Nile Virus in southern Spain

Central role of the mosquito Cx. perexiguus in the enzootic circulation of West Nile Virus in southern Spain

Mosquito community composition plays a central role in the transmission of zoonotic vector-borne pathogens. In this study it was evaluated how the mosquito community affects the seroprevalence of West Nile virus (WNV) in house sparrows along an urbanisation gradient in an area with the endemic circulation of this virus. 2544 birds and 34.0829 mosquitoes were sampled in 45 localities, analysed in 15 groups, each containing one urban, one rural and one natural area. WNV seroprevalence was evaluated using an epitope-blocking ELISA kit and a micro virus-neutralization test (VNT). The presence of WNV antibodies was confirmed in 1.96% and 0.67% of birds by ELISA and VNT, respectively. The VNT-seropositive birds were captured in rural and natural areas, but not in urban areas. Human population density was zero in all the localities where VNT-positive birds were captured, which potentially explains the low incidence of human WNV cases in the area. The prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against WNV was positively correlated with the abundance of the ornithophilic Culex perexiguus but negatively associated with the abundance of the mammophilic Ochlerotatus caspius and Anopheles atroparvus. These results suggest that the enzootic circulation of WNV in Spain occurs in areas with larger populations of Cx. perexiguus and low human population densities. informacion[at] Martínez-de la Puente et al (2018) Mosquito community influences West Nile virus seroprevalence in wild birds: implications for the risk of spillover into human populations. Scientific Reports 8: 2599 Doi 10.1038/s41598-018-20825-z