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Impact of fisheries on sea turtles

The bycatch of sea turtles by industrial fisheries is receiving an increasing attention in recent years due to the high impact it causes on these endangered species. This issue was evaluated in southern Spain waters that harbors an important feeding ground of loggerhead and leatherback turtles, including the endangered Eastern Atlantic loggerhead population. To quantify the impact that different fisheries represents to sea turtles, 272 fishermen answered to detailed illustrated questionnaires in all the main ports of Andalusia and Murcia (Spain) during 2014. This study has updated the knowledge of turtle bycatch in the southwestern Mediterranean revealing a widespread impact of fisheries on sea turtles. Fishermen recognized an annual catch of 2.3 turtles per boat. Considering the census of industrial fishing boats in the study area (1182), more than 2840 sea turtles could be bycaught per year in the study area. Most of captures (96.2%) were produced during the summer. These results suggest a severe impact of most of legal fisheries (surface longline, pursue seine, trawling and small scale fisheries) on loggerhead feeding grounds in the southwestern Mediterranean. Fishermen suggests that drift fishing conducted by foreign or illegal fishermen and almadrabas are also causing a significant bycatch of turtles. Several measures such as reviewing compliance of current fishing and environmental regulations, modifying turtle technics to reduce turtle bycatch (e.g. reduction of the use of squid as bait and disposal of hooks deeper in the water column), facilitating the rescue and handle of wound turtles and their transport to the port for recovery, and recognizing the efforts of anglers to perform a more sustainable fishing, are recommended to mitigate this impact. informacion[at] Marco et al (2020) Sea turtle bycatch by different types of fisheries in southern Spain. Basic and Applied Herpetology
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Molecular vibration as a novel explanatory mechanism for the expression of animal colouration

Molecular vibration as a novel explanatory mechanism for the expression of animal colouration

Animal colouration is characterized by the concentration of pigments in integumentary structures and by the nanoscale arrangement of constitutive elements. However, the influence of molecular vibration on colour expression has been overlooked in biology. Molecular vibration occurs in the infrared spectral region, but vibrational and electronic properties can influence each other. Thus, the vibration of pigment molecules may also affect their absorption properties and the resulting colours. For the first time the relative contribution of molecular vibration (by means of Raman spectroscopy) and concentration (by means of HPLC) of melanin polymers, the most common animal pigments, was calculated to generate diversity in plumage colour in 47 species of birds. Vibrational characteristics explained >9 times more variance in colour expression than the concentration of melanins. Additionally, melanin Raman spectra was modelled on the basis of the chemical structure of their constituent monomers and calculated the Huang-Rhys factors for each vibrational mode, which indicate the contribution of these modes to the electronic spectra responsible for the resulting colours. High Huang-Rhys factors frequently coincided with the vibrational modes of melanin monomers. Results can be explained by the influence of molecular vibration on the absorption properties of melanins. The colour of organisms may thus mainly result from the vibrational properties of their molecules and only residually from their concentration. As a given melanin concentration can give rise to different colours because different structural melanin conformations can present different vibrational characteristics, vibrational effects may favour phenotypic plasticity and thus constitute an important evolutionary force. informacion[at] Galvan et al (2018) Molecular vibration as a novel explanatory mechanism for the expression of animal colouration. Integrative Biol. Doi 10.1039/C8IB00100F!divAbstract